Categories
Two Wheels Good

2018 Rides

This was 2018:

DateMe + WhoBikeKm.Trip
2283.62018 Year to Date
18-12-30MikeFX38.1Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Atkins. Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose return by Goose to Old Island and E&N EVR. Sunny at first, increasing cloud. 8 C
18-12-25MikeFX35.9Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Tulista Park (Sidney); return. Cloudy 7C
18-12-21MikeFX28.9Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N. Cloud. 8 C
18-12-15MikeFX40.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge. Cloudy, Windy. Mike had flat
18-12-08FX15.4Atkins Rest Stop, Goose, Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose back to start. Cloudy, 7 C
18-12-06MikeFX28.3Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Sunny, 5 C
18-12-02MikeFX29.4Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by Goose. Cloud, some sun. 8 C and sea breeze.
18-11-25MikeFX40.7Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge
18-11-12FX52.9Bridge, Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Stelly's X, E. Saanich, Central Saanich, Mt Newton X, Lochside
18-11-10FX29.5Bridge, Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N EVR. Cool clear day. 9 C and sea breeze. I needed a layer of light fleece and leg covering. The trip from the Bridge to Old Island Highway is about 1.1 Km less along E&N EVR than along the Goose.
18-11-08MikeFX28.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge. Sunny, 10 degrees. Still warm enough for shorts and light shell.
18-11-04MikeFX47.4Sunny autumn day. Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, Interurban to Quayle, crossed West Saanich on Beaver Lake Rd., lakeside trail to Brookleigh, crossed Pat Bay Highway on Sayward, connected to Cordova Bay Rd and Lochside trail at Mattick's.
16-10-22FX28.9Foggy day in James Bay, parts of Oak Bay. Sunny in Saanich. Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside
18-10-21MikeFX48.3Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Sidney, Airport Trail, return. Sunny 15 degrees, still weather for shorts.
18-10-18MikeFX35.5Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans'; Return
18-10-15FX28.9Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge
18-10-06FX40.5Bridge, Goose to Sooke Road, back by E&N EVR from Old Island Highway. Sunny, cool.
18-09-29MikeFX39.5Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic., San Juan, Goose, E&N EVR from Old Island Highway to Bridge
18-09-26Mike, SteveFX25.0Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose
18-09-23MikeFX40.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, InterUrban, Quail, Beaver Lake Road, Elk Lake Road, Royal Oak, Lochside.
18-09-16FX36.3Bridge, Goose, InterUrban to Camosun; Camosum and VI Tech, Markham, W. Saanich, Royal Oak to Lochside; N to Cordova Bay (Mattick's), back to Bridge; Rainy day, sunny breaks in PM and wind.
18-08-25MikeFX36.8From Lochside School; Lochside to Sidney. Cool, steady light showers
18-08-19FX40.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island, E & N VRB
18-08-18MikeFX46.8From Royal Oak (Lochside School) Lochside to Sidney, Flight Path (Airport) Loop, return. Sunny, moderate temperature, good breeze
18-08-12MikeFX56.2Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace and Amity to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 18 C. South wind.
18-08-11MikeFX24.2Bridge, E&N EVR to Old Island, Goose back downtown; caught in a shower for 19 km.
18-08-06MikeFX40.3Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic, San Juan Parkway, Lochside to Swing Bridge, Goose to Old Island; E & N Esquimault to the Bridge; sunny.
18-08-04MikeFX49.0Lochside from McKenzie (Don Mann) to Tsehum Harbour, Sidney with Hunt Valley. Sunny, moderate temperature and wind
18-07-29FX61.7Bridge, Lochside to Sidney, part of Flight Path, back by Lochside. Sunny, hot.
18-07-28MikeFX35.8Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans, back the same way
18-07-14MikeFX37.6From Don Mann; Lochside to SwingBridge, Goose, Interurban, Quayle, Beaver Lake, Park trail, Oldfield, E. Saanich, Mount Newton X, Lochside
18-07-07MikeFX42.2From Don Mann; Lochside to Tulista, Sidney and back
18-07-02FX52.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Sayward/Welch/Hunt/Martindale to Ocean View (Michells) , back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Cloudy at first; then sunny but still cool.
18-07-01MikeFX32.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford, Goldstream, Wale, Goose. Cool, windy
18-06-24FX52.6Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 20 C. Brisk south wind.
18-06-23MikeFX22.4Bridge, E&N EVR , Goose back in.
18-06-16Mike (part)FX54.2Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Island View (Michell's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, sunny, 20 degrees. Almost hot.
18-05-26FX64.2Bridge. Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Saanichton, Mt Newton X, Lochside, San Juan, UVic, Uplands, Oak Bay, Beacon Hill
18-05-21MikeFX24.7Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose back in; Victoria Day - cloudy, with parade on Douglas and F-18 flyover.
18-05-19Mike (part)FX78.9Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to SwingBridge, Lochside to Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lakes trail, Oldfield, East Saanich, part of airport loop, Sidney, Lochside; Cloudy day, a bit cool; moderate to brisk E, ESE and SE winds
18-05-16FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Mattick's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, temperate evening
18-05-13FX64.2Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Interurban, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside and Goose back. Sunny. 24 C. UV 7. Shorts, short sleeves. Sunscreen weather. Asphalt replaced on Lochside south of Claremont. E&N now paved past Esquimault lands to shopping center
18-05-06FX57.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside to Cy Hampson; Lochside and Goose back. Sunny most of the day. 20 C.
18-04-29FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose. cloudy, cool
18-04-22FX58.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Ocean View (Michells), back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Montreal and back up Niagara. Sunny but still cool.
18-04-15FX61.3Bridge, Lochside, Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lake trail, Oldfield, Mt Stelly X, E. Saanich, Wallace, Lochside. Government, Dallas. Should be end of the Niagara Street pipe pull. Cloudy, cool.
18-04-07FX52.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 13 C. . Brisk south wind. Shorts but a bit chilly at times.
18-04-02FX45.8New (Blue) Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford to Jacklin, Jenkins, Glen Lake Road and Sooke Road to Luxton, turn and return on Goose. Sunny, windy. First two crossings, in the saddle, of new Johnson Street Bridge. First crossing of new bridge over McKenzie on the Goose.
18-03-31FX30.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Stroll on new bridge (Blue Bridge replaced) on pedestrian access day/official opening; trip to GVPL Central, home by Beacon Hill and Niagara around the pipe project.
18-03-25FX51.1Blue Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Wale Road, Goose to Swing Bridge; Lochside to Royal Oak; return Lochside and San Juan to U Vic, Uplands, Musgrave, Monterey, Richmond, May, Beacon Hill Park. Some sunny; some overcast; 10 C, windy.
18-03-11FX52.6Blue Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Sunny, 10 C. when I started, warmed to 13. Brisk north wind. Almost warm enough for shorts.
18-03-04FX41.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge. Sunny, cloud moved in, moment of drizzle. Windy. 8 degrees C.
18-02-25FX29.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Upland, U Vic, Gordon Head, San Juan. Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge.
18-02-12FX32.5Beacon Hill, May, Moss. Thurlow, Richmond, Richardson, St. Ann/Musgrave, Upper Terrace, Cedar Hill X Road, San Juan, Lochside. Sunny, clear, 5 degrees C. Wind.
18-02-10FX32.1Blue Bridge, Goose-Lochside to Cordova Bay Road (Mattick's). Sunny. 6 C. Light wind. Almost nice, but the wind had a bite. A few dozen bikes out. Some recreational riders bundle up. Some roadies in hi-tec kit. The traffic meter at Hope Point was at 620 at 2:30. New things - a fence on the parking lot at the Red Lion. Construction on Lochside near Claremont. Stop sign for bikes at Saanich Road.
18-01-010Happy New Year
Categories
Food

More Bread Machine Loaves

These loaves are mainly whole grain and multigrain. Multigrain means a blend of white flour, whole wheat flour and other grain flour, flakes or groats of buckwheat, oat and other grains (usually not rye flour). These loaves work differently depending on blend, hydration, yeast and machine cycle. I think multigrain loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

I use a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine, and I adapt recipes from recipe books, mainly from the Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”).   My salt measurement and yeast measurement are for 50% sodium.  The salt and yeast measurement in the source are stated in a source column. I change salt and yeast for 50% sodium. I also adjust yeast for the SD-YD 250;  the italicized yeast measurement it may work in a machine with similiar features and cycle but may not work in other machines. I use Bakers’ percentage (B%) and deal with flour, water, salt and yeast by weight.

French Bread, as written the Panasonic Manual. French bread bake cycle – one size recipe; 3 cups of flour (medium loaf) that comes out in a block that fills the extra-large pan.  It can be scaled down. It isn’t as good as oven baked, but as good as some retail bread made in that style.

 MediumMediumMedium @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
IngredientVolumeVolumeWeightB%
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
1 3/4 tsp7/8 tsp | 7/16 tsp
n | .9 g.n | .68 g.
White Flour2.25 cups313 g75235 g.
Whole Wheat.75 cups104 g2578 g.
TFW417 g100
Salt1.5 tsp.75 tsp4.3 g13.2 g.
Water1.25 cups1 + 3/16 cups
(1 cup + 3 tbsp)
280 g.71214 g.

My sister makes a Flax Seed Whole Wheat bread with 2.5 cups of whole wheat flour, 1 cup of white flour, oatmeal, sunflower, flax and poppy seeds, flax meal, and 1.75 cups milk.  This works in her machine, producing a loaf with a fairly open crumb. I wanted a medium recipe with 3 cups of flour that could scale for smaller loaves. The BLBMC (p. 118) formula uses 1 cup whole wheat flour, 2 cups of bread flour.  So does a formula on the web Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread. I used the latter version, with a shift to more whole wheat flour; and added the ingredients of my sister’s recipe.

The BLBMC used 1 cup whole wheat and 1.125 (1 + 1/8) cups water. The shift to more whole wheat and the addition of rolled oat and flax meal requires a small amount of water for hydration, between one and two tablespoons more of water. One tablespoon is 1/16 of a cup. The water can be added as water, when using milk powder.

This dough finds a couple of teaspoons of water in 3 tablespoons of honey. Switching to fluid milk adds quality – but requires some attention.

Unpasteurized milk can lead to surprizes. Some bakers think milk,  real or reconstituted, should be scalded to denature proteins. I don’t spend time and energy on this.

The medium loaf was a little lopsided. My attempts to bake smaller loaves based on this recipe were educational. It has a firm crust and a dense crumb that holds up for firm sandwich slices.

 MediumMediumMedium @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% sodium50% sodium
50% sodium
Weight
[Fluid]
B%
Instant Yeast
Standard | Panasonic
2 tspn | .625 tsp

n | 1.8 g.1.3 g.
Whole Wheat1 cup2 cups
278 g.61209 g.
White Flour2 cups1 cup139 g.31104 g.
Flax mealx2 tbsp12 g.039 g.
Rolled Oatsx.25 cup25 g,0619 g.
T. Flours/strong>454 g.100
Flax Seed2 tbsp.2 tbsp.1.5 tbsp.
Poppy Seedx2 tsp.1.5 tsp,
Salt 1 tsp.5 tsp
2.8 g..622.1 g.
Gluten 1 tbsp0
Olive Oil or
[BLBMC] Canola
3 tbsp.3 tbsp.2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp.3 tbsp60 g.
[12 g.]
345 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.33 cup
(325 ml)
320 g
[290 g.]
240 g.
if Water1.125 cups
Skim Milk Powder
if Water
.25 cups
Fluid Weight302 g.67

I make a loaf I call Pembina Bread: a white flour loaf with seeds, based in BLBMC Dakota Bread (p. 119). Named for Pembina, North Dakota, important to Winnipegers. The gateway to Fargo and Grand Forks; the site of KCND, the first American TV network affiliate transmitter that reached antennas in Winnipeg (later purchased by Canadian owners and moved north of the border as CKND).

[table “21” not found /]

Cornell Bread is a BLBMC recipe (p. 161), based on Cornell bread developed by Clive McCay of Cornell University first published in 1955 in a short book called The Cornell Bread Book. The BLBMC bread machine version has been emulated and published on the Web e.g. here. It uses an egg, milk powder, and soy flour for protein, and wheat germ for fiber. 

Dr. McCay is reported to have believe that this bread, with butter, was a sufficient healthy and nutrious diet. A nearly vegetarian scientific health food, 30 years before the vegetarian prescriptions of Diet for a Small Planet. Dr. McCay, a scientist in animal nutrition, experimented on mice to prove that bread made with bleached white flour was not as healthy as bread made with unbleached flour.  The 1980 edition of the Cornell Bread Book is still available.  The recipe is presented in recipes  and articles on prepper and counterculture sites.  The recipe  was developed during the Great Depression.  Food security was recognized as an issue in America more clearly then than now. Eleanor Roosevelt’s Kitchen, a 2010 article in the New Yorker, looked back at the campaigns by home economists at Cornell to  promote economical recipes for American kitchens in hard times.  Americans were persuaded that hard times ended by 1945, and food writers began to treat the austerity diet (e.g. recipes for Bulldog Gravy orDepression Cake in M.F.K. Fisher‘s How to Cook a Wolf) as as a memory.

A brown bread. Slightly sweet, and rich. The white flour gives it some lift.

This loaf taught me a lesson about hydration. My first attempt was the medium loaf. I missed a digit in entering the water in the calculator. I used 1.25 cups x 236 (=295 g). The correct amount was 1.125 cups x 236 (=266 g). One eight of a cup. The dough was sloppy. I shook some white flour in (not measured, 3 or 3 tbsp) with about 10 minute of mixing time left to get a dough that held up. The loaf had an open crumb and cratered.

 Medium Loaf

   @ 75% of Medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
VolumeWeight
[Fluid]
B%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.48156
White Flour1.125 cups156 g.36117
Soy flour.33 cups40 g.30 g.
Wheat germ 1.5 tbsp6.5 g.4.9 g.
Milk Powder.25 cups25 g.19 g.
Flour Total437100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Salt1.5 tsp.75 tsp4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten1.5 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *2.5 tsp1.25 tsp3.5 g.2.6 g.
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Egg
Large
157 g.
[36 g.]
1
Honey2 tbsp40 g.
[8 g.]
1.5 tbsp
(6 g. water)
Water1.125 cups281205
Fluids32572

Maple Buttermilk Whole Wheat BLBMC p. 108. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup; salt reduction, and yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. Estimating the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup helped to tune the overall hydration.

 Medium
Medium
Medium@ 75% of Medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
WeightWeight
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2 tsp1 tsp | .5 tsp.
n | 1.4 g.n | 1.1 g.
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.157 g.
White Flour1.5 cups209 g.157 g.
TFW418 g.
Salt 1.5 tsp.75 tsp
50%
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
1.33 tbsp
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g.
[13 g. fluid]
1.5 tbsp
[9 g. fluid]
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.
[250 g. fluid]
210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid total263 g.

Zarathustra’s Bread is BLBMC (p. 126) “Tecate Ranch Whole Wheat”, made with 100 % whole wheat flour, honey, molasses and poppy seeds. Freshly baked whole wheat is tasty. 100% whole wheat loaves can dry out or go stale fast.

BLBMC named it for a spa in Baja California that serve this bread, developed by a chef at spa in San Diego which used Zoroastrianism as one its themes. Exotic naming is a staple of counter-culture marketing to consumers with a taste for the bohemian in their lives. For a more SF reading of the name, consider watching 2001: a Space Odessey, listening to the fanfare of Thus Spake Zarathustra. Imagine the loaf as the monolith.

IngredientMedium LoafMedium Loaf
Medium Loaf
 @ 75% of Medium
BLBMC50 % Sodium50 % Sodium50 % Sodium
WeightB %
Whole Wheat3.25 cups452339
Wheat Germ
Wheat Bran
.33 cup.25 cup3 tbsp
TFW100
Gluten2.5 tbsp0
Salt1.5 tsp..75 tsp4.33.2 g.
Poppy Seeds1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Instant Yeast1 tbsp.75 tsp
2.11.6 g.
Honey.125 cups
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Molasses.125 cups;
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Water1.33300 g.
314 g.
225 g.
236 g.
(1 cup)
Categories
Food

Bread Machine Loaves

I worked out my approach to yeast and low sodium in  baking in a Panasonic SD-YD250 for medium (1.5 lb.) loaves June, July and August, 2018. Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”) recipes did not work as published.  

Here are recipes that worked. Most are in tables with volume, weight, and ingredients, scaled for smaller loaves.  I mark the parts of the source formula that I changed. I reduce salt to 50% salt, and adjust yeast for salt. I also adjust yeast for my Panasonic SD-YD250 machine, except for the Panasonic recipes.

Basic White Loaf is in the Panasonic Manual or online. Basic bake cycle. Panasonic presents this recipe in M, L, XL in the manual, as a milk bread (milk instead of water), and as a basic sandwich loaf. This recipe works at published for medium loaves. It works at 50% sodium by cutting the recipe amounts of salt and yeast by 50%.

100% Whole Wheat is in the Panasonic Manual or online at 100 % Whole Wheat. Bake Whole wheat cycle. This recipe works at published. It works at 50% sodium by cutting the recipe amounts of salt and yeast by 50%

Chuck Williams’s Country French is from BLBMC (p. 200).  Beth Hensperger adapted a recipe from her 2002 bread book in Williams-Sonoma collection. It was a recipe for La Cloche device; in the style of Pain de campagne, with whole wheat (not rye) flour.  A lean French bread: 25% whole wheat, 75% white flour, water, salt, yeast; without milk, butter or sugar.  BLBMC says Basic or French bread cycle.  Those cycles use a more intensive mix, and I back off on yeast and water.  The loaf has a firm crust and a reaonably open crumb. Low salt, B% and scaled.

 MediumMediumMedium @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
IngredientVolumeVolumeWeightB%
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
1 3/4 tsp7/8 tsp | 7/16 tsp
n | .9 g.n | .68 g.
White Flour2.25 cups313 g75235 g.
Whole Wheat.75 cups104 g2578 g.
TFW417 g100
Salt1.5 tsp.75 tsp4.3 g13.2 g.
Water1.25 cups1 + 3/16 cups
(1 cup + 3 tbsp)
280 g.71214 g.

Pembina Bread is adapted from BLBMC (p. 119) or Beth Hensperger blog: Dakota Bread. The source recipe says basic bake cycle, and uses .5 cup of whole wheat for a medium loaf.  Chuck Williams Country French, above, use .75 cups of whole wheat.  The bulger takes up a little water, which changes the hydration.  I use less bulgur than the BLBMC source, and  whole wheat bake cycle. Low salt, B% and scaled.

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium Loaf@ 75% of Medium
BLBMC
50% Sodium
50% Sodium
50% Sodium
DakotaWeight g.
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2 tsp |1 tsp. | .5 tspn | 1.4 g.1 g.
Whole Wheat.5 cups.625 cups
8765 g.
White Flour2.25 cups2.25 cups313 g235 g.
Bulgur.25 cups.25 cups
40 g.30 g.
TFW420
Salt 1.5 tsp..75 tsp
4.33.2
Sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups.25 cups3 tbsp
Pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups2 tbsp.1.5 tbsp
Sesame seeds2 tsp.2 tsp1.5 tsp
Poppy seeds1.5 tsp2 tsp1.5 tsp
Flax seeds2 tsp.1.5 tsp
Gluten
2 tbsp0
Canola Oil2 tbsp

Sunflower Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp.
Honey2 tbsp21 g.
[5 g. water]
15 g.
(1.5 tbsp)
Water1.25 cups300 g.225 g.
Total fluids305 g.

Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread is an adaptation of a BLBMC recipe (p. 118), with changes discussed in my post on Other Recipes, and changes for low sodium. I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 MediumMediumMedium @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% sodium50% sodium
50% sodium
Weight
[Fluid]
B%
Instant Yeast
Standard | Panasonic
2 tspn | .625 tsp

n | 1.8 g.1.3 g.
Whole Wheat1 cup2 cups
278 g.61209 g.
White Flour2 cups1 cup139 g.31104 g.
Flax mealx2 tbsp12 g.039 g.
Rolled Oatsx.25 cup25 g,0619 g.
T. Flours/strong>454 g.100
Flax Seed2 tbsp.2 tbsp.1.5 tbsp.
Poppy Seedx2 tsp.1.5 tsp,
Salt 1 tsp.5 tsp
2.8 g..622.1 g.
Gluten 1 tbsp0
Olive Oil or
[BLBMC] Canola
3 tbsp.3 tbsp.2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp.3 tbsp60 g.
[12 g.]
345 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.33 cup
(325 ml)
320 g
[290 g.]
240 g.
if Water1.125 cups
Skim Milk Powder
if Water
.25 cups
Fluid Weight302 g.67

Three Seed Whole Wheat Bread is my adapatation of the BLBMC recipe (p. 116). It is a low sodium recipe.  When I depart from the recipe, I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 Medium Loaf   @ 75% Medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
WeightB%
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2 tsp.1 tsp. | .5 tsp2.8 g. | 1.4 g..331.1 g.
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.50157 g.
White Flour1.5 cups209 g. 50157 g.
TFW418 g.100314 g.
Dry Skim Milk3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Salt1 tsp..5 tsp2.9 g2.2 g
Gluten1tbsp.
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Sunflower Seed1/3 cup2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Sesame Seed
2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Poppy Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Sunflower Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Water1.25 cups1 + 3/16 cups
280 g
70210 g.

Scandinavian Light Rye is based on BLBMC (p. 134).  In a table – low salt, B%. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. It works on basic bake cycle, medium loaf setting.

 Medium   @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% sodium
50% sodiumB%50% sodium
Weight
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2.5 tsp1.25 tsp. | .625 tspn | 1.8 g.n | 1.3 g.
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196 g.
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups135 g.34101 g.
TFW396 g.100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt
1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten1 tsp.0
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g.

Buttermilk Whole Wheat Bread is from BLBMC (p. 108). I didn’t quite get this during the trials in the summer of 2018. Medium-light whole wheat. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup as the sweetener. I did not feel sure about this, but it works with my salt reduction and my yeast adjustment for salt and for Panasonic. I worked out the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup and overall hydration. That may be a useful number to check other 50-50 loaves for hydration and yeast. I think multigrain 50-50 loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

[table “39” not found /]

White Whole Wheat flour is mentioned in a recipe from BLBMC (p. 127) “White Whole Wheat Flour Bread”. (see variation with 3 cups of flour). It is supposed to work like bread flour; a loaf is supposed to work on basic bake, which is a “white bread” cycle. I never had White Whole Wheat flour. It is a specialty flour available from King Arthur mills in the USA:

White whole-wheat flour is … made with hard white spring or winter wheat — the bran, germ, and endosperm are all ground to result in another 100 percent whole-wheat flour. … because it’s made with hard white wheat instead of hard red wheat, like whole-wheat flour, it has a paler color and its taste is milder. It’s still nuttier than all-purpose flour because it includes the fibrous bran and germ of the wheat, but it’s a more approachable whole-wheat flour, particularly for those who don’t enjoy the hearty taste of whole-wheat flour.
It can be used interchangeably with whole-wheat flour in any recipe

https://www.kingarthurflour.com/learn/guides/white-whole-wheat

Home bakers report, in King Arthur comments, that the uses of this flour include using it in place of white flour for pancakes. I substituted Rogers “Whole Wheat Bread Flour”, which was higher in protein (gluten) than the flour in the recipe. It was a lesson. I stopped looking for a flour that can’t be obtained in this part of Canada.

The general conditions for the loaves above in my test program:

  • Wheat flour, by Rogers, a Canadian mill:
    • All-Purpose flour (i.e. bread flour); 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams;
    • Bread Flour for White Bread;
    • Whole Wheat flour; 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams;
    • Whole Wheat Bread Flour (a blend of Whole Wheat and white flour, and added gluten);
  • Rye Flour. Rogers Dark Rye Flour;
  • Instant Yeast; 1 tsp = 2.8 g.;
  • Salt in a recipe is table salt; 1 tsp = 5.7 grams.
Categories
Food

Bread Machine Artisan Bread?

A bread machine cannot produce the shapes associated with rustic, country hearth, or “artisan” bread.  These loaves are shaped as round boules or oval batards (or torpedos), and baked on a deck, without a pan. A bread machine bakes a loaf in a pan. Artisan loaves tend to have firm or even crisp/crunchy crusts. There is no direct temperature control or temperature reading on a bread machine.  A bread machine creates enough heat to bake a dark crust but cannot reach the temperature that bakes crunchy crusts.

A bread machine can become a mixer (and a proofing box) on a dough cycle. This saves labour. But a bread machine doesn’t have the alternative functionality that mixers offer.

The bread machine makes dough on a cycle.  A dough cycle will have an initial rest or preheat phase many machines (e.g. my Panasonic SD-YD250 has it on all dough cycles except pizza dough). Every machine will reliably mix the ingredients at a slow speed and move up to higher speed to work the dough.  There is some control of time.  For instance to avoid the more intensive mixing – just stop it when it is mixed.  And a pause after slow mixing can be made (to autolyse before more intensive mixing, or to add something), until the end of the phase. A few machines have a pause function, controlled by a button.  Most machines have a power interrupt that restarts the machine at the point in the cycle it stopped after short power outage.  This allows a pause of several minutes by unplugging the machine. The machine must be plugged back in, within the time limit or it goes back to the start of the cycle.

There are no options to slow down the mixing or change the time – just stop when you want to stop mixing, and rest or work the the dough.

Some breads use a fermented “starter” to introduce yeast and bacteria (sourdough, mother, chef, levain) or to enhance flavour (sponge, biga, poolish, pre-ferment, pate fermentee). Adding a starter during mixing means lifting the lid and/or taking out the pan, and putting it in manually.

Dough cycles have a rest phase and a rise phase allowing the dough to ferment in machine, and stop.  The user has options after on when to remove the dough after mixing, and other options:

  • the end of mixing
  • the end of the rise
  • after the end of the cycle for added bulk fermentation time
  • put the dough in the fridge to slow down fermentation
  • knock it down, knead by hand;
  • additional fermentation – a second rise before shaping the loaf

The user ultimately shapes it, let it rise and puts it into the oven in pans, on a baking sheet or in or on a ceramic sheet or apparatus (e.g. pizza stone) at whatever temperature the user wants.

The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook offers advice and several recipes/formulas for artisan loaves, using the dough cycle to mix dough at pages 196-297.  At some points, the machine must be paused to prolong the ferment This advice but has to be adjusted for the machine.  For instance many machines can’t be paused

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook was a French whole wheat artisan loaf at p. 206. I used {Whole Wheat} Dough cyle. BLBMC advises a knock down, additional fermentation/rise after the dough cycle.  These steps are superflous with a machine with a long rise phase and a knockdown in the rise phase.

The steps after the dough is out of the machine are shaping a torpedo loaf, final proof, scoring the loaf and baking at 400 F for 32-48 minutes:

  • 347 g. (2.5 cups) whole wheat flour
  • .5 cup spelt flour
  • {4.3 g. (.75 tsp)} salt [BLBMC 1.5 tsp]
  • {2.8 g. (1 tsp)} instant yeast [BLBMC 4 tsp]
  • 1 5/16 cups (1.25 + 1 tbsp) buttermilk
  • .5 cup water

The loaf looks like a loaf of rye bread – it has a dark crust.  The crust is soft, as might be expected with whole wheat.  It has a sticky crumb that leaves a residue on the bread knife, like an artisan OEM product sold in the local Thifty’s over the last two years before fall 2018.  The crumb is not as darkly coloured as 100%  whole wheat recipes which use dark brown sugar or molasses and oil – and not as dense.

Categories
Food

Light Rye – Bread Machine

A bread machine can make a light rye. Light rye breads are soft  breads made with wheat flour, with rye flour or rye meal for flavour and texture, or light rye flour. Also, there are (retail/craft/home) rustic rye and rye sourdough styles. Light rye bread may be made in pans, but also baked in a torpedo shape.

Authentic pumpernickel is outside the capabilities of bread machines. There are retail/craft/home formulas for a rustic style with rye flour, e.g.  King Arthur Classic Pumpernickel baked in an oven. 

Rye bread has been baked with caraway seeds so often that consumers associate the flavour of caraway with the flavour of rye. Caraway is related to cumin, fennel, anise, carrots, celery and parsley. Some varieties are known as Persian cumin. It has been used as a cooking herb or spice since the time of the Roman Empire. It is a major spice in Central European cooking and in the nations beside the Baltic and was adopted in Germany, the Nordic countries and England. Caraway seeds were/are used to make flavoured breads with white flour in Central European recipes. Cumin and caraway are the spice in Kamijnekaas – the spiced Dutch cheeses Leiden Kaas and spiced Gouda. Caraway is a strong flavouring, and may overwhelm other flavours in rye bread. Other flavouring agents: fennel and anise seeds, dried orange peel, orange zest and orange oil for flavour in varying amounts and combinations. There are dark or sour light rye styles (retail/craft/home/bread machine) with wheat flour, rye flour and cocoa or ground coffee for dark colour,vinegar or sour cream for acidity corn meal, oatmeal or sunflower seeds for texture.

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook has recipes for light rye breads (at pp. 133-143, 313) with 25% – 35% rye flour by weight. This is manageable in a bread machine for most recipes and machines.

Panasonic’s manual asserts rye flour leads to dense bread when used to replace other flour, and warns that mixing rye flour might overload the motor.  I bake light rye bread in a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine. The machine’s cycles are programmed to knead for a longer time than a rye bread needs. The dough starts to release water and gets sloppy.

Rye flour has less of the proteins that build gluten than wheat flour.  It has pentosans which absorb water early in mixing but release it after periods of intensive mixing. The dough seems dry and elastic – it holds it shape and is slow to relax. According to Daniel DiMuzio’s Bread Baking, An Arisan’s Perspective (p. 51), bakers with control of speed and time would use a short period of slow mixing for dough with significant amounts of rye flour, and little faster intensive mixing DiMuzio notes (p. 216) that dough for deli-style light rye (80% white/20% rye) would be hydrated at 68% and mixed slowly: in a stand mixer, 3 minutes slow to blend ingredients and 3 minutes on second speed. This would be a custom cycle in a bread machine with the option of programming a custom cycle. With my machine, I could turn off the machine after slow mix and a few minutes of knead/mix and let it rise and finish it on the counter and in the oven; or in the machine:

  • let it sit, knock it down once with a spatula, let it “bench” rise and
  • plug it in and set to bake “cake”.

I get a good loaf on a basic bake cycle without resorting to those hacks.

Rogers Foods mills Dark Rye Flour is available locally, and priced as a staple instead of a luxury good.  Rogers does not directly publish a volume to mass conversion. The food facts label indicates 1 cup = 120 grams = 4.2 oz.  Food Facts for Dark Rye flours from other mills are consistent.  120 grams is in the range of published values, which is confusing and wide.  Online Conversion’s converter and Aqua-Calc converter dark rye flour said 1 cup of dark rye flour = 4.5 oz. = 128 g.   The rest of the range:

  • BLBMC; Reinhardt’s Bread Bakers Apprentice – no factor stated
  • Bakery Network conversion chart – 1 cup “rye flour” = 4 oz. = 113 g.
  • Aqua-Calc converter light rye flour (or medium rye flour) – 1 cup = 102 g = 3.6 oz.
  • The Traditional Oven’s  converter – 1 cup = 102 g. = 3.6 oz.  light rye?
  • King Arthur Flour’s Ingredient Conversion chart – 1 cup = 3.625 oz.  light rye?

Bread with Caraway and Onions. There is a white bread recipe in the Panasonic manual that evokes rye bread with a touch of rye flour, and caraway seeds. Panasonic has not published it online. It is nearly identical to Panasonic’s Basic White Bread. For a medium loaf, add 1/8 cup rye flour, 2 tsp caraway seeds, and 1/8 cups chopped onions. The linked recipe is for Panasonic machines and normal (i.e. not reduced) sodium.

Scandinavian Light Rye – a BLBMC recipe.

 Medium   @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% sodium
50% sodiumB%50% sodium
Weight
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2.5 tsp1.25 tsp. | .625 tspn | 1.8 g.n | 1.3 g.
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196 g.
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups135 g.34101 g.
TFW396 g.100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt
1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten1 tsp.0
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g.

Swedish Rye Bread – a BLBMC recipe.

 Medium Loaf   @ 75% of medium
BLBMC50% Sodium50% Sodium50% Sodium
VolumeWeightB %
Instant Yeast
standard | Panasonic
2 tsp1 tsp. | .5 tsp
n | 1.4 g.n | 1.1 g.
White Flour2 cups278 g.65209 g.
Dark Rye FlourMedium Rye1.25 cups150 g.35113 g.
TFW428 g.100
Fennel Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Dried Orange Peel1.5 tsp1 + 1/8 tsp
Salt1.25 tsp.625 tsp3.6 g.2.7 g.
Gluten4 tsp.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Honey3 tbsp2.25 tbsp
45 g.
[9 g. water]
Water1.25 cups293 g.69220 g.
Total Fluid229 g
Categories
Food

Steamed Rice

Steamed rice is rice cooked in water. It is not fried first (as with some pilaf, biryani, Mexican styles) or cooked as a risotto, paella, rice pudding, congee or other flavoured rice dish.  Cooked rice can used in a dish, as an accompaniment to other dishes, fried or processed further, or added to other dishes e.g. Nasi Goreng is preparation of fried cooked white rice.

Steaming is an absorption preparation.  Salt is optional; it is added for taste. Steamed rice can be cooked in a pot or cooking vessel over a heat source, or in a rice cooker appliance. Pressure cookers and pressure multi-cooker appliances (most multi-cookers are basically electric pressure cookers – e.g. Instant Pot) can do steamed rice. The slow cooker can cook rice in a soup or stew. It does not do well with plain rice where the goal is fluffy grains.

Rinsing brown rice is pointless – the grain is still coated with bran. The editors and authors of Cook’s Illustrated/America’s Test Kitchen have a theory about rinsing white rice: concept 30 in The Science of Good Cooking (2012). Their aphorism is “Rinsing (Not Soaking) Makes Rice Fluffy). CI/ATK publishes summaries of its test kitchen tests. Rinsing removes rice flour and talc and helps to keep it from getting sticky. Rinsing is normal for White Basmati but uncommon with long grain white rice grown in the Southern USA, and with short grain rices. Rinsing is not useful for short grain rice that is supposed to be creamy (for risotto) or sticky (for sushi and other Asian dishes). Or with with Spanish Bomba or other paella varieties. Soaking rice before cooking is not useful. It is recommended by some sources, but it is not useful.

It is possible to put rice in ample boiling water and strain it like pasta. Some cookbooks promote this; many suggest this as an option among other methods.

Sri Owen, in The Rice Book (1993), said that steaming rice in a vessel on a heat source can be a 2 step process.  First, rice is simmered in a measured amount of water in an uncovered pot at the boiling point until the rice has absorbed the water. The second step is “finishing”; Owen describes 4 ways:

  • Cover the vessel and leaving it on very low heat to steam the rice internally, taking it off the heat and leaving it covered;
  • Moving the rice into a collander and steaming the rice suspended in another vessel over boiling water.   This is basically parcooking the rice and put it in a steamer or collander, recommended by Jamie Oliver;
  • Moving the rice into a casserole, covering it and baking in an oven;
  • Moving the rice into a microwaving vessel, covering with the usual wrap or cover, and a few minutes in a microwave oven.

Owen pointed out that a rice cooker was a good tool; she did not write about presssure cookers or multi-cookers.

The conventional method of steaming rice is a slow simmer at the point that water steams. It is simpler than the two step processes above, and allows the cook to deal with other tasks once the temperature has been brought down to a simmer. It requires a pot that disperses the heat evenly, a tight lid to hold in the steam, and control of heat and time.

Put rice in a meaured amount of water, bring the water to a boil,  cover the pot, reduce the heat, simmer. Leave it covered and set a timer. Remove from heat and rest off heat, covered for 10-15 minutes. Set the timer for the final rest.

The cooking time can be from 12 to 20 minutes. The method works within a range of rice/water ratios and times. The results may be more or less fluffy, absorbent or sticky.  The rice recipe at What’s Cooking America has a table of rice to water ratio and cooking times for several kinds of rice. The instructions at that site for cooking white rice are a bit contradictory.  There is a concise article by Fine Cooking magazine and some videos and notes at the Kitchn site. The normally stated ratio of long grain white rice to water is 1 cup of dry rice to 1.5 to 1.75  cups of water.  CI/ATK recommend the low end of this range. 1.5 cups of water to 1 cup of rice is too much water for Basmati rice. It may be suitable for pilafs of other long grained white rice.

Package directions for the standard varieties such as long grain white rice tend to go high on water; many recipes do. This will lead to soggy overcooked rice.

Steamed rice can be cooked in a pressure cooker. I normally use a normal pot on a stove for white rice. The pressure cooker is not faster or more convenient.

White Basmati Rice, a long grain aromatic rice originating from Northern India, Pakistan and Nepal can be cooked by the slow simmer method. Refer to: article from the Guardian; Madhur Jaffry recipe from the Telegraph. I like the rice fluffy and go light on the water:

  • 2.33 cups of water to 2 cups of rice, simmering 23 minutes, or
  • 2 cups of water to 1.5 cups of rice, simmering 20 minutes . 

All rice delivers carbohydrates, a source of glucose, an essential nutrient. Rice is normally milled to remove the husk or bran and germ, leaving the white kernel of endosperm with the carbs. White rice can be cooked quickly, saving time and fuel/energy.

Brown or whole rice has been dried, but the bran has been left. It is heat treated to keep the oils in the bran turning the rice rancid. Roger Own, in his essay “A Rice Landscape”, published in Sri Owen’s The Rice Book (1993) wrote: “… brown rice always costs more because there is less demand for it, and because the bran … milled off … would have been sold separately.”

The demand for brown rice has been increasing because it has become perceived as a healthy whole food, and because restaurant chefs and food writers have developed palatable preparations. Good preparation liberated healthy foods from the ideas that eating should be directed to the hope of healthful longevity, and that tasty food must be unhealthy. Brown rice has more micronutrients and fiber than white rice. 

Steaming brown rice takes a longer cooking time – 40 minutes or so in a rice cooker or in a pot on a stove. Many recipes suggest 2 cups of water to one cup of brown rice. CI/ATK suggests 1.5 cups of rice in 2.33 cups of water. Sri Owen suggests that white and brown rice should have the same amount of water for some techniques.

An Instant Pot or other pressure multi-cooker, or any pressure cooker can save time and energy and produce good results with brown rice.

Categories
Food

Yeast – Panasonic Bread Machine

Bread baked in the Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine does not need as much yeast as recipes other than the Panasonic manual say:

  • The machine will bake an extra large (2.5 lb) loaf that may take more than 4 cups of flour. The yeast dispenser does not hold much more that a tablespoon;
  • Panasonic’s  recipes (in the manual; see its online recipe resource pages) call for half the amount of yeast in typical recipes:
    • 1 tsp (instead of 2 tsp or more ) for 3 cups of flour for a medium loaf;
    • 1.5 tsp. for 4.375 cups of flour for extra large loaves;
  • Medium loaves  based on The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”) and other recipe resources filled the  pan, and had airy, weak crumb; some ballooned or cratered/collapsed/imploded.

Panasonic’s recipes for medium loaves, both with bread flour and whole wheat flour, on the bake sandwich cycle, call for 1 tsp of yeast. These recipes have identical hydration rates – the flour and water weights are identical.  In each formula the yeast is 2.8 g to 417 g; in baker percentage (B%) 0.7%. Panasonic’s  “bake sandwich” cycle selects for medium loaves – it locks out the use of the loaf size command setting.  The recipes in the manual for white sandwich and whole wheat sandwich bread on bake sandwich cycle are identical to the formulas for medium loaves in the basic white and 100% whole wheat recipes. For the 2 hour “bake rapid” cycle and the 3 hour “whole wheat bake rapid” cycles, Panasonic suggests 2 tsp of yeast.

Panasonic’s engineers worked the mix, knead and rise phases to work that way. Set for medium loaves, basic bake and whole wheat cycles, the machine mixes for 3 minutes, kneads for 20-30 minutes and rests to rise for nearly two hours.

I prefer low sodium bread. The principle is to reduce yeast by the same percentage as salt as suggested in BLBMC at p. 290 and by the Please Don’t Pass the Salt bread page

I monitored recipes in June-August, 2018. I peeked under the lid to see what happened – including the last part of the rise phase after the machine knocked down the dough.  I made manual interventions a few times – I ran a silicon spatula between the dough and the pan 5-10 minutes just before the start of baking to gently deflate the loaf. (Using a spatula risks marring the no-stick surface of the pan. Silicon spatulas are safer.)

I adjusted yeast in BLBMC formulas for white, whole wheat, and combined flour (multigrain), and formulas requiring 2 tsp  yeast for a medium loaf (a formula with 3 cups or 15 oz. flour +/- by weight). This approach resolved the inflation problem and produced loaves that were not inflated:

  • Ignore the amount of “bread machine yeast” in a formula in the BLBMC – (BLBMC has different amounts of SAF instant dry yeast and any other “bread machine yeast”);
  • Weigh yeast and know the correct conversion factor. I use a factor: 1 tsp of instant yeast weighs 2.8 grams;
  • Weigh salt and know the correct conversion factor, I assume a recipe refers to conventionally ground table salt; 1 tsp weighs 5.7 grams;
  • Use half the amount in the recipe for SAF instant dry yeast in a BLBMC formula (instant or “bread machine” dry yeast in other formulas not specifically written for a Panasonic machine).

For low sodium I cut yeast and salt equally.  For 50% sodium I just halve them. Then I make a “Panasonic” adjustment for yeast by halving it. When  I use 50% of a BLBMC recipe amount of salt, I use 25% of the BLBMC recipe amount of yeast.

The recipes and my notes for that round of tests are in a separate post.

Categories
Food

SD-YD250 Bread Machine

Reviews at Everyday Sandwich and Make Bread at Home describe and illustrate the Panasonic SD-YD250.  It has loaf size settings for medium (1.5 lb), large (2 lb) and extra large (2.5 lb) loaves baked in an extra large vertical rectangle pan. Large loaves are shaped like a tall pan loaf. Extra large loaves are long when laid down, and relatively wide and tall, compared to other loaf shapes.

Like more expensive Panasonic 2.5 lb loaf machines – the SD-RD250 and the SD-YR2500 – it has settings for medium, large and extra large loaves but not for small loaves. The SD-YD250 seems to have the motor, drive train, non-stick pan and heating element of the newer, higher priced models.

Like most bread machines, it is tool to mix, knead, rise and bake bread with wheat flour. The SD-YD250 can bake daily or sandwich bread, whether with white flour or whole wheat, as well as I can bake those loaves in conventional baking pans in an oven. Also, loaves made with specialty varieties of wheat, (e.g. spelt). It can bake loaves with other flour or meal added to wheat flour (e.g. light rye – a mixture of white flour and rye flour, although manufacturer deprecates using rye flour).

The pan coating releases the loaf easily at the end of the bake cycle but the paddle stays on the shaft in the pan. (Removing the paddle from the pan can be done immediately with an oven mitt, or after the pan cools after taking the loaf from pan.  It works better before the bits of crumb around the end of the shaft dry out and bond the paddle to the shaft.)

The inside measurements  of the pan are 19 cm (7.5 inches) long by 14 cm (5.5 inches) wide in the pan’s normal operating configuration when it is vertical. Any loaf will be or should be 19 cm x 14 cm.   The pan is 14.5 cm (5.7 inches) bottom to top. In a Panasonic extra large pan, a 2.5 lb. recipe of 4.4 cups of flour and about 2 cups of liquid would bake a loaf over 14.5 cm “long”, 19 cm “high”, and 14 cm “wide”.

There is no viewing window in the lid; this is not a drawback. The yeast dispensing compartment is a rare feature. The way to keep yeast away from the water before the mixing phase starts in this machine which takes dry ingredients first at the bottom of the pan is to put yeast first, before the flour. The dispenser has drawbacks. The dropper – a little button – has to be jiggled to make sure it is seated before filling the compartment.

A medium loaf baked on a basic cycle has about 3 cups of flour and 1.25 cups of water or fluid. This dough is hydrated at 71%.  It could be baked in a 1.5 pound bread pan (about 2,600 cubic centimeters) – perhaps filling it. A 1.5 pound conventional oven pan is 25 cm (10 inches) long, 13 cm (5 inches) wide and (about) 8 cm deep.

With white flour on the basic bake cycle, the height of  medium loaf from the bottom of the pan to top of the loaf at the wall of the pan would be around 75% of the height of the Panasonic extra large pan: about 9 cm at the side of the pan. To the top of the domed top of the loaf, 11-12 cm is reasonable; more is tall.  Height changes with:

  • type of flour (e.g. rye flour does not rise as well as wheat flour); or a small change in the amount of flour (1/4 cup), water, salt or yeast; or
  • cycle, e.g. French Bake – the bread rises and is less dense – more space for the same mass.

Height affects how I store and slice the loaf, and can be a sign that a loaf lacks structure.

This machine’s program assumes the use want primarily to bake bread leavened with yeast. There is no cycle to mix and make bread leavened with other methods (e.b. baking powder), and no gluten free setting. Breads that are mixed but not kneaded can be mixed outside the machine, and baked on a bake-only cycle.

There are two kinds of cycle, “bake” and “dough”.  Each cycle has three phases; a bake cycle has the fourth one:

  • (Initial) Rest – the ingredients come to a common temperature. The heating element, as far as I can tell is used for short intervals but not enough to heat the outside of the machine;
  • Knead – a two part phase. 1. Mix the ingredients together, hydrates the flour; 2. Knead to work the proteins in the flour into gluten;
  • Rise – fermentation. 2 hours in basic bake cycle. The heating element is deployed to keep yeast at a good temperature (the dough may heat up on its own) on a cooler day. The mixer drive is deployed for knockdowns in this phase;
  • Bake – the heating element bakes the bread.

The motor has two speeds: off and on.  Mixing involves turning the power on and off in short intervals.  Mixing, for a medium loaf, on any cycle, is under 5 minutes:

  • 30 seconds – 40 pulses: 1/2 second on, 1/4 second off;
  • 120 seconds – 120 pulses: 3/4 quarter second on, 1/4 second off;
  • 30 seconds on;
  • The yeast dispenser drops yeast;
  • 35 second pause.
  • 60 seconds – 10 pulses: 4 seconds on, 2 seconds off.

The mixing forms a ball of dough centered on the paddle.

To knead the dough, the machine pushes it around the pan. The dough sticks to the sides of the pan, and is stretched until it snaps away. This is similiar to the operation of a stand mixer, with programmed pauses. This involves longer intervals with the motor on.

This machine has a long warm rise. In this phase, it uses the motor for short intervals twice. This deflates or knocks down the dough. In basic bake cycle there are 2 sets of about 15 slow turns  at – 2:00 and – 1:40 on the countdown timer. After the second knock down (which is 50 minutes before baking phase)  the dough should relax and flow to fill the bottom of the pan and rise again. In the first part of the bake phase, the dough should spring. A tenacious dough holds its ball shape for a long time. It may gather at one end of the pan.  The result is that the top of the baked loaf slopes. This happens with some dough in this kind of pan.  There is a hydration zone.  A tenacious dough may not flow.  A wet dough may balloon or collapse.

It supports low sodium baking, as any bread machine does. If the salt is reduced, the yeast should be reduced by the same proportion.

This Panasonic model uses less yeast than machines by other brands. It kneads hard and gives the dough a long rise with a bit of heat to keep the dough at the right temperature to ferment. It deflating the dough softly in short knock-downs. It need only about half as much as another machine. This means, with many or most recipes, for 50% sodium, I am using half the salt and one quarter of the yeast.

Categories
Food

BLBMC

Beth Hensperger’s Bread (1988, Chronicle Books) was a sound and useful books about home baking. Her Bread Bible (1999) earned the 2000 James Beard Foundation award for a cookbook in the Baking & Dessert category. I have an ebook copy. It rode the currents of liberation from industrially processed bread, the recovery of whole grain baking, and inception of artisanal baking. By that time, homebakers were using whole wheat flour and some ancient grains but baking bread was about wheat flour. Kneading was for developing gluten (gluten free bread baking is a contradictory concept); resting was for fermentation for flavour and the texture of the crumb. At that time, home bakers mainly used active dry yeast; some had access to yeast cakes (wet raw yeast). Various kinds of instant yeast were available but not widely used. She had a chapter on bread machines in the Bread Bible.

She must have been working on The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (2000) (BLBMC) for Harvard Common Press as the Bread Bible was being published and sent to market. The BLBMC preceded Not Your Mother’s Slow Cooker and other titles in the “Not your mother’s” series. The BLBMC explains the use of a bread machine to make the range of breads that are different from the soft breads that imitate Wonder Bread presented in the retail grocery industry – say loaves that resemble loave that might be purchased from a commercial bakery operation, or even an artisanal bakery.

A bread machine would not be useful if it did not bake white bread. The BLBMC covers the varieties of white bread, and the method of changing texture and flavour. It has recipes for whole wheat, and ancient grains. It did not anticipate the demand for gluten-free baking.

It has worthwhile sections on bread machine operation and (pp. 38-39) on common failures. It has sections, sidebars, and detail sections on bread making and bread machine topics. The table of contents and the index don’t locate all of them.

  • p. 12 flour, and
    • pp. 46-47 white flour from wheat,
    • pp. 62-63 whole wheat and the uses of non-wheat grain flour to affect a loave made with wheat flour,
    • p. 125 proteins in flour,
    • pp. 106-107 whole wheat flour,
    • pp. 133-135 using rye flour with wheat flour.
    • p. 140 diy milling of whole grain flour,
    • pp. 150-152 non-wheat specialty flour,
    • p. 193 organic flour
  • pp. 13-14 yeast;
  • p. 13, p. 59 vital wheat gluten;
  • p. 15, p. 290 Salt
    • is not used as a seasoning or flavour agent;
    • should not be exposed to the water and the yeast before the machine mixes the ingredients;
    • can be reduced if yeast is reduced by the same proportion.
  • p. 15 ingredient measurement;
  • p. 18 converting volume to weight for flour and sugar;
  • pp. 69-72 6 “sampler” recipes for one pound loaves;
  • p. 76 eggs;
  • p. 168 dough enhancers;
  • pp. 170, 172 gluten free ingredients;
  • pp. 182-183 baking with whole grains, and preparing whole grain;
  • pp. 197-198 using the machine to mix and knead dough for baking in an oven, and using artisanal baking methods:
    • starters and pre-ferments,
    • shaping loaves
    • baking stones, tiles and ceramic containers (and cloches);
  • p. 233 olive oil;
  • p. 354 the shapes of bread machine pans.

The BLBMC treated all bread machines (it listed 18 manufacturers in the market at the time) as equivalent, with a  warning to “Take Stock of Your Machine”. This undersells the complexities of adapting the knowledge of bakers for consumer appliances:

  • Bread is complex product that has to be mixed, worked and baked;
  • Baking involves doing something until a result it observed (the dough is mixed and supple; it has risen, or is ready to bench or bake);
  • Some steps cannot be described to a novice without pictures and videos. A baker with some experience might know how a “shaggy” dough (whole wheat dough that has been mixed to the point that the ingredient including water have been blended and the flour has absorbed the water and can be kneaded to develop gluten and left to rise may be described as shaggy) differs from a dry dough that needs more water;
  • Machines work in simple steps, without feedback.  The designer can program combinations of steps that should produce results with some combinations of ingredients if the machine is loaded properly;
  • The book did not anticipate technological and market changes including the developments in growing and preserving instant dry yeast and changes in machine mixing.

I had a problem with BLBMC recipes in a Panasonic SD-YD250, which I solved. There are differences in bread machines, particularly in their programmed cycles and times.

The recipes are generally well planned and reliable, but a little quirky and dated. There are outliers; e.g. the recipe for a “medium” loaf of 100% whole wheat bread on p. 124 is 4 cups of flour with 1.5 cups fluid.  That is a 2 lb. loaf. “Tecate Ranch Whole Wheat” at p. 126 is a more workable 100% whole wheat loaf.

While Ms. Hensperger is clear about the importance of measurement of ingredients for bread machines, she uses home cooking conventions in her recipes including measuring out ingredients by volume.

BLBMC recipes have ingredient lists for “medium” 1.5 lb. and “large” 2 lb. loaves. A medium loaf usually uses 3 cups of flour – white, whole wheat and multigrain. The BLBMC recipes are consistent with other bread machine recipes and with conventional oven recipes.

The BLBMC says bread flour should be the white flour in bread recipes.   Ms. Hensperger describes bread flour as having 12.7 % protein. White bread flour in the USA has 11.5-13.5 % gluten-producing protein. All purpose white flour in the USA has 9.5-11.5 %.  Canadian all purpose flour is milled from hard red wheat, and has the same protein content as USA bread flour (Canadian Millers’ technical standards). Canadian all purpose is fine for bread.

Ms. Hensperger favours the use of vital wheat gluten (gluten flour; added gluten) in formulas for many breads baked in the machine.  She suggested added gluten in almost every formula for bread baked in the machine up to 1 tsp of added gluten per cup, less gluten for bread flour. Added gluten changes the balance of the loaf and the performance of the dough (flow and rise); the effect may be different according to the machine. Adding gluten doesn’t improve breads made with high protein bread (Canadian AP) flour. It doesn’t seem to help whole grain breads, either.

Ms. Hensperger described the varieties of dry yeast as: 1. active dry yeast; 2. fast acting or instant dried yeast; 3. quick-rise (rapid-rise) yeast; 4. bread machine yeast.  There are few functional differences between 2, 3 and 4. Instant yeast, under any of its names, is the choice for bread machines.  Ms Hensperger prefers SAF instant yeast to the point that she says it is more potent. She suggests two alternatives for each recipe:

  1. SAF instant dried yeast (SAF Red),
  2. 25% – 33% more bread machine yeast than SAF instant dry yeast.  For instance, for Dakota Bread, BLBMC says 2 tsp SAF or 2.5 tsp bread machine*.

SAF Red is a good product but its superiority may be debated. (*Ms. Hensperger has moved away from this  approach. In a version of the recipe for Dakota Bread in 2015 on her blog she said 2 tsp “bread machine yeast”).

The range of views about  the amount of yeast:

  1. For a 1.5 lb. loaf, Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook calls for 2 tsp instant dry yeast or more and 1-1.5 tsp. salt for 3 cups of flour. This  is in the range of recipes in other books at the time, and of many recipes published on the web. It is .67 tsp instant dry yeast, or 1.9 g. yeast per cup (about 140 g.) of wheat flour; the B% is 1.4%;
  2. Manufacturers of instant, rapid/quick rise and bread machine yeasts recommend .5 tsp yeast for each cup of flour for bread machines: Red Star Quick-Rise; Bakipan Fast Action and Bread Machine; SAF Gourmet Perfect Rise and  Bread Machine. Fleishmann’s  recipes on its web pages imply the same amounts of its instant Quick-Rise (Rapid-Rise) or its Bread Machine product, or more. This is 1.4 g. yeast per about 140 g. of wheat flour; the B% is 1%;
  3. Panasonic suggests .33 tsp of dry yeast per cup of flour -which works in Panasonic machines.

Ms. Hensperger covers conversion from volume to weight for flour but not for yeast, salt and other ingredients.

Several online converters report: 1 cup, (48 tsp (US)) instant dry yeast = 136 grams; 1 tsp = 2.8 g. My average for 15 samples of 1 tsp of SAF Red was 2.8 g. I was able to scoop a few dozen samples, weigh them on a scale and verify the weight of a teaspoon.

Salt can be measured by volume with measuring spoons, but should be used carefully with level measurements. It is better to go by weight. The conversion rate is 1 teaspoon of table salt to 5.7 grams – the teaspoon that the recipe writer will have assumed.  Table salt is not all the same – some is pretty finely ground and more dense.

I checked conversions for my on Measuring and Conversion.

The sections on using a bread machine to mix and knead dough for baking in an oven, and artisanal baking methods are informative. A bread machine is a labour saving tool, and not a replacement for the tools and method of artisanal baking.

Categories
Food

Bread Machines

Bread baked at home, whether in a machine or a conventional oven can be better than many retail offerings available in grocery markets.  A home baker can bake for dietary goals e.g. low sodium.  A drawback: home baked loaves have a shorter shelf life.

Bread machines came on the market about 1986, and became popular outside Japan by the late 1990s.  My first bread machine was a Black & Decker B1561. I replaced it with a Panasonic  SD-YD250 in 2016.

There are well informed and thoughtful reviews on the Web – buried under superficial reviews with thoughtful SEO. Comprehensive comparative reviews are rare; comparative reviews are usually gateways to marketing sites. Consumer Reports may never have done breadmakers or bread machines. Culinary magazines tend to snip and snipe. The reviews at Breadmakerguides.com are throrough and informative, but the site is not comprehensive. The New York Times affiliate Wirecutter site tackled the subject periodically (eg. 2019), but only covers a few machines.

A good machine can be had for under $100.00. A more expensive machine may have more features, but many features are low value buttons and pre-programmed settings. A bread machine has a heating element, a motor, and a pan mounted to the frame. The pan serves as mixing bowl, proofing box, and baking pan . The bowl has a paddle shaped mixing device (it may be called a dough hook or kneader) connected to the power train by a shaft in sealed bearings at the bottom of the pan. Even the best built machines do not necessarily withstand the strains of being used 2 or three times a week for more than a few years.

A professional baker works with technology with hundred of kilograms of flour and water, with some control over parts of the process – how long to mix, rest, bake and control over temperature. A home baker works at a smaller scale, with control of time and oven controls, and may have machines to mix dough or store it while it rises.  A home baker may put the loaves in bread pans or shape the dough by hand before baking it in the oven. A home baker needs space, several vessels or machines to mix and rest dough, baking pans and an oven. Bread machine makes one loaf at a time. One pan to wash. Modern machines have durable no-stick coatings.

Bread machines are described by reference to the baked loaf as small (1 lb.), medium (1.5 lb.), large (2 lb.) and extra large (2.5 or 3 lb.) (a 1 pound loaf would be regular in a bakery; 1.5 pounds would be large) . These terms to describe the volume capacity of the pan.  Typically, a small loaf made of wheat flour would have 2 cups of flour; a medium loaf 3 cups, and a large loaf 4 cups. The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (Harvard Common Press, 2000) calls bread machine pans tall, vertical rectangle, and horizontal.  The tall pan has one paddle in the middle at the bottom, and may be square or oval.  A machine that makes small and medium loaves will have a “tall” pan.  A machine that makes large loaves will be vertical rectangle or horizontal.  A machine that make extra large loaves – e.g. Panasonic 250 or 2500 models; Breville Custom Loaf XL – is probably vertical rectangle.

A bread machine does not bake quite as hot as kitchen oven; any machine puts out enough heat to bake the dough completely without burning the crust. The pan shape dictates the shape of the loaf. Most machines that bake 1.5 or 2 pound loaves have a “tall” vertical pan. This loaf is manageable it can be bagged and handled. Machines with horizontal pans roduce loaves shaped like bread produced in a bakery. These pans have to have two paddles and complex drive trains. There are machines that bake 2.5 and 3 pound loaves. These loaves may be the right amount to feed a family – but they will make the consumer to handle this bread differently than bread purchased from a bakery or a store.

In bread machines, as in industrial bakeries, the product depends on the recipe, the process and accurate measurement. Beth Hensperger in the Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook, consistently with other baking books, list ingredients by volume but suggests weighing ingredients.

A user selects a baking program or “cycle”. A basic cycle could be from 3 to 4 hours, depending on the machine. Some reviewers say a long cycle is a drawback – for customers looking for fast results. But a long cycle may bake a better loaf more consistently.

Most cycles assume and require the use of high protein wheat flour and yeast to biologically ferment dough. High protein white flour (bread flour or Canadian All Purpose flour) and regular grind whole wheat flour (coarse ground is available) are similar in density, weight, starch and protein but form gluten, ferment, rise and bake differently. Whole wheat flour has bran and wheat germ. In traditional baking, it has to be mixed longer to distribute fluid and ensure hydration. There are different approaches to kneading, with some favouring less and others more. The BLBMC and some sources assume that a whole wheat bake cycle involves a longer kneading time and a longer rise. Total “kneading” time is a confusing indicator. Kneading is a succession of stop and go operations of the motor and drive train. Some machines work the dough hard, in short bursts.

Most bread machines have cycles for basic baking (white flour) and whole wheat baking, and dough cycles that omit the final baking phase. Many machines have a cycle manufacturers call Bake (Rapid), Turbo, Quick Bake, Rapid, etc. for fast fermentation. Most machines have a cycle that bakes or mixes and bakes batter.  This may be called “bake cake” but is appropriate for bread leavened with baking powder or baking soda.

Gluten free settings get some space on the packages. Gluten free bread is mixed but not kneaded (kneading develops gluten from protein in flour made from wheat and a few other grains); it is leavened with chemical leaven e.g. baking powder. Some machines have settings that mix ingredients and bakes. This can be called Quick Bread and would be use for corn bread and other loaves that are not knead. Some machines have a Cake setting that bakes a wet mix. That’s what gluten free bread machine baking means. The best bread machine(s) for gluten free bread: a mixing bowl, a wooden spoon, a baking pan and an oven.

The machine will count down minutes and seconds to the conclusion of the cycle in the timer display, but the display will probably not provide other indications of the machine’s progress. Many bread machines appear to sit and do nothing for a half hour or an hour after being started in a rest phase. Some machines may use the heating element for a few seconds at a time, to create a warm temperature, to warm the ingredients to a common temperature.

The first active phase is mixing and/or “kneading”, about 20-30 minutes or more. The ingredients have to be mixed into dough and then worked to develop gluten. A home baker mixes before kneading – manually mixing flour, water and other ingredients in a bowl before moving it or using a mechanical method (dough hook in stand mixer) to stretch and folding it on itself, pushing it and repeating the motion for several minutes. A professional baker will probably use a mechanical mixer; many home bakers may have one. A mechanical mixer or stand mixer uses mixing arms, a paddle or a spiral dough hook in a circular or elleptical motion. A mixer is controlled manually, and has a range of speeds.  With a stand mixer, the baker uses a slow speed to mix the ingredients and then mixes at a higher speed to knead. The bread machine has changes from rapid short pulses to longer runs, broken by short pauses. The BLBMC calls initial slow mixing Knead 1 and mix/knead Knead 2. The initial mix is only a couple minutes long. There may be a pause between these parts of the phase. The machine will not identify these steps on the machine display.

If the user has not loaded the machine properly, the dough will be wrong after the initial mix. It has to be wet – enough, but not too wet.  A dry dough will not, knead, flow and rise.  A wet dough may collapse. A dough may be saved by the addition of water or flour during the initial mix and before the knead/mix starts – or ruined by an excessive or untimely intervention. Ideally, the machine should be paused and then allowed to return to mixing. Stopping and restarting the machine will go back to the start of the initial rest. It will eventually get back to mixing, but time will be lost, gluten will have started to form, and some fermentation will have occurred.

Some machines have a pause function on the panel; some can be paused by pulling the plug and using the power interrupt. The machine will resume where it stopped – if it has that feature!

The designers will have set the program for what they regard as optimum handling of white flour in the “basic” cycles and whole wheat flour in the whole wheat cycles. Some machine allow users to create custom settings (e.g. the Breville BBM800XL and a few Zojirushi models).  

Professional bakers with industrial mixers may use 10-15 minutes of “intensive mixing” – the mechanical mixing of yeasted white flour dough dominant in professional bakeries for French loaves until Raymond Calvel devised the hybid style in the 1960s. Intensive mixing develops gluten in white flour rapidly. Home bakers with stand mixers use slower speeds due to limitations of machinery (see the stand mixer review by America’s Test Kitchen in print and YouTube) or to use a hybrid, modified or improved mixing method.

The dough ferments in the rise phase.  The gluten relaxes and flows to fill the pan and take the shape of the pan. The yeast ferments the starch which produces gas that is trapped in little gluten balloons, which makes the dough rise. A baker divides dough and puts in oven pans. Two hours in a bread machine is short compared to the rise/rests in some artisinal baking techniques, but compares to the combined times for bulk fermentation and proofing in making bread in many bakeries.

The heating element is switched on for a bake phase in a bake cycle; there are dough cycles that stop after mixing or rising.  The dough springs into space above the dough when the baking element is turned on. The machine powers the element. The designer expects the machine to reach the right temperature with that element heating the air inside that space – there is no direct temperature control setting in most machines.

Bread machines produce good results with white flour and whole wheat flour – baked loaves, and pizza and flatbread doughs.