Small Loaves

Home baked bread is at its best the first day after the fresh loaf has cooled. It loses its appeal after a couple days. Making small loaves is a way to make enough to last for a short time – without having to think about toasting the last several slices, or freezing part of a fresh loaf.

The smallest loaf setting in the Panasonic bread machines with extra large (“2.5 lb”) capacity pans, such as my SD-YD250, is medium – a 1.5 lb. loaf made with 3 cups of flour.  A small recipe, in bread machine terms, would be a loaf made with 2 to 2.25 cups of flour.There is no small loaf setting on this machine. The cycle will depend on the recipe. The two main choices are basic and whole wheat. The other choices are mainly just names on the control panel.

The area of the rectangular pan is 266 square centimeters: 19 cm (7.5 inches) by 14 cm (5.5 inches). A small recipe would fill the pan to a depth of less than 3 cm. The Panasonic kneader paddle is 6 cm long, radially.  It is 2.6 cm high along its arm, rising to a fin 5 cm tall. The dough ball for a small recipe (2 to 2.25 cups of flour) will be taller than the paddle.  It may not touch the sides of the pan, but centrifugal force stretches the dough away from the paddle. The edge of the ball sticks to the pan, and snaps away.  The machine can knead a small recipe.

A small loaf should rise and spring to a height of 7.5 cm or more, above the top of the kneader, and flow enough. If dough does not flow, the loaf will be irregular.  Even a medium recipe may not flow enough.  In the medium recipe it usually means one end of the loaf is taller. It depends on hydration, on how the gluten relaxes, and the mass of the ball. 

Overmixing is a risk, in principle. The mixing process can stretch the dough too much or too often, and break the gluten strands. An overmixed dough cannot hold the gases, and will not rise.  Intensive mixing may affect a loaf with effects short of the complete failure caused by overmixing.

Food processors can mix dough, although a food processor might only handle 3 cups of flour, and may only have one speed – very fast.  The mixing time may be less than a minute.  Some food processors have a dough speed and/or special blade to mix dough. The risk of overmixing dough in a food processor is well recognized.  A variety of mixers are available to the home baker. A  home stand mixer that can handle several cups of flour, with multiple or variable speed settings.  The power output of a Kitchen Aid stand mixer with a 5 quart bowl may be 325 watts.  A Bosch Compact Kitchen Machine may output 400 watts into its dough hook in its stand mixer configuration. Larger models may output 800 watts.   They have to be used at the right settings and for a short time.

The Panasonic SD-YD250 has a 550 watt motor, and runs for the majority of the time in a 25 minute +/- mixing phase on a medium loaf setting.  The risk of overmixing is pretty much theoretical.

There is a risk of burning, in principle.  The heating element, rated at 550 watts is outside the pan, around the bottom about 1 cm above the bottom. Heat is applied for intervals.  The manual states the total length of the bake phase. The small loaf develops hot spots around the base of the pan but is not burned.  This is pronounced with French bread cycle which has 55 rather than 50 minutes bake time.

There are 1 lb machines on the market including Zojirushi models and some Panasonic models (not available in USA or Canada but available in Japan and on Amazon).   Some large and extra large machines have settings for small loaves. Other methods for making small loaves:

  • scale to a smaller version of a recipe, mixed and baked in the machine on medium loaf settings
    • make a manual intervention to move the dough;
    • let the ball rise where it rests – this may lead to a short loaf that is well formed at one end;
  • mix in the machine on dough cycle; rest for rise and/or divide/shape the dough and bake in the kitchen oven;
  • mix and knead by other methods and bake in the kitchen oven.

3 or 4 cup recipes can be scaled down.

Continue reading “Small Loaves”

2018 Rides

This was 2018:

DateMe + WhoBikeKm.Trip
2283.62018 Year to Date
18-12-30MikeFX38.1Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Atkins. Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose return by Goose to Old Island and E&N EVR. Sunny at first, increasing cloud. 8 C
18-12-25MikeFX35.9Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Tulista Park (Sidney); return. Cloudy 7C
18-12-22MikeFX28.9Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N. Cloud. 8 C
18-12-15MikeFX40.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge. Cloudy, Windy. Mike had flat
18-12-08FX15.4Atkins Rest Stop, Goose, Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose back to start. Cloudy, 7 C
18-12-06MikeFX28.3Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Sunny, 5 C
18-12-02MikeFX29.4Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by Goose. Cloud, some sun. 8 C and sea breeze.
18-11-25MikeFX40.7Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge
18-11-12FX52.9Bridge, Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Stelly's X, E. Saanich, Central Saanich, Mt Newton X, Lochside
18-11-10FX29.5Bridge, Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N EVR. Cool clear day. 9 C and sea breeze. I needed a layer of light fleece and leg covering. The trip from the Bridge to Old Island Highway is about 1.1 Km less along E&N EVR than along the Goose.
18-11-08MikeFX28.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge. Sunny, 10 degrees. Still warm enough for shorts and light shell.
18-11-04MikeFX47.4Sunny autumn day. Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, Interurban to Quayle, crossed West Saanich on Beaver Lake Rd., lakeside trail to Brookleigh, crossed Pat Bay Highway on Sayward, connected to Cordova Bay Rd and Lochside trail at Mattick's.
16-10-22FX28.9Foggy day in James Bay, parts of Oak Bay. Sunny in Saanich. Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside
18-10-21MikeFX48.3Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Sidney, Airport Trail, return. Sunny 15 degrees, still weather for shorts.
18-10-18MikeFX35.5Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans'; Return
18-10-15FX28.9Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge
18-10-06FX40.5Bridge, Goose to Sooke Road, back by E&N EVR from Old Island Highway. Sunny, cool.
18-09-29MikeFX39.5Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic., San Juan, Goose, E&N EVR from Old Island Highway to Bridge
18-09-26Mike, SteveFX25.0Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose
18-09-23MikeFX40.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, InterUrban, Quail, Beaver Lake Road, Elk Lake Road, Royal Oak, Lochside.
18-09-16FX36.3Bridge, Goose, InterUrban to Camosun; Camosum and VI Tech, Markham, W. Saanich, Royal Oak to Lochside; N to Cordova Bay (Mattick's), back to Bridge; Rainy day, sunny breaks in PM and wind.
18-08-25MikeFX36.8From Lochside School; Lochside to Sidney. Cool, steady light showers
18-08-19FX40.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island, E & N VRB
18-08-18MikeFX46.8From Royal Oak (Lochside School) Lochside to Sidney, Flight Path (Airport) Loop, return. Sunny, moderate temperature, good breeze
18-08-12MikeFX56.2Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace and Amity to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 18 C. South wind.
18-08-11MikeFX24.2Bridge, E&N EVR to Old Island, Goose back downtown; caught in a shower for 19 km.
18-08-06MikeFX40.3Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic, San Juan Parkway, Lochside to Swing Bridge, Goose to Old Island; E & N Esquimault to the Bridge; sunny.
18-08-04MikeFX49.0Lochside from McKenzie (Don Mann) to Tsehum Harbour, Sidney with Hunt Valley. Sunny, moderate temperature and wind
18-07-29FX61.7Bridge, Lochside to Sidney, part of Flight Path, back by Lochside. Sunny, hot.
18-07-28MikeFX35.8Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans, back the same way
18-07-14MikeFX37.6From Don Mann; Lochside to SwingBridge, Goose, Interurban, Quayle, Beaver Lake, Park trail, Oldfield, E. Saanich, Mount Newton X, Lochside
18-07-07MikeFX42.2From Don Mann; Lochside to Tulista, Sidney and back
18-07-02FX52.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Sayward/Welch/Hunt/Martindale to Ocean View (Michells) , back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Cloudy at first; then sunny but still cool.
18-07-01MikeFX32.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford, Goldstream, Wale, Goose. Cool, windy
18-06-24FX52.6Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 20 C. Brisk south wind.
18-06-23MikeFX22.4Bridge, E&N EVR , Goose back in.
18-06-16Mike (part)FX54.2Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Island View (Michell's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, sunny, 20 degrees. Almost hot.
18-05-26FX64.2Bridge. Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Saanichton, Mt Newton X, Lochside, San Juan, UVic, Uplands, Oak Bay, Beacon Hill
18-05-21MikeFX24.7Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose back in; Victoria Day - cloudy, with parade on Douglas and F-18 flyover.
18-05-19Mike (part)FX78.9Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to SwingBridge, Lochside to Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lakes trail, Oldfield, East Saanich, part of airport loop, Sidney, Lochside; Cloudy day, a bit cool; moderate to brisk E, ESE and SE winds
18-05-16FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Mattick's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, temperate evening
18-05-13FX64.2Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Interurban, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside and Goose back. Sunny. 24 C. UV 7. Shorts, short sleeves. Sunscreen weather. Asphalt replaced on Lochside south of Claremont. E&N now paved past Esquimault lands to shopping center
18-05-06FX57.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside to Cy Hampson; Lochside and Goose back. Sunny most of the day. 20 C.
18-04-29FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose. cloudy, cool
18-04-22FX58.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Ocean View (Michells), back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Montreal and back up Niagara. Sunny but still cool.
18-04-15FX61.3Bridge, Lochside, Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lake trail, Oldfield, Mt Stelly X, E. Saanich, Wallace, Lochside. Government, Dallas. Should be end of the Niagara Street pipe pull. Cloudy, cool.
18-04-07FX52.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 13 C. . Brisk south wind. Shorts but a bit chilly at times.
18-04-02FX45.8New (Blue) Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford to Jacklin, Jenkins, Glen Lake Road and Sooke Road to Luxton, turn and return on Goose. Sunny, windy. First two crossings, in the saddle, of new Johnson Street Bridge. First crossing of new bridge over McKenzie on the Goose.
18-03-31FX30.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Stroll on new bridge (Blue Bridge replaced) on pedestrian access day/official opening; trip to GVPL Central, home by Beacon Hill and Niagara around the pipe project.
18-03-25FX51.1Blue Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Wale Road, Goose to Swing Bridge; Lochside to Royal Oak; return Lochside and San Juan to U Vic, Uplands, Musgrave, Monterey, Richmond, May, Beacon Hill Park. Some sunny; some overcast; 10 C, windy.
18-03-11FX52.6Blue Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Sunny, 10 C. when I started, warmed to 13. Brisk north wind. Almost warm enough for shorts.
18-03-04FX41.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge. Sunny, cloud moved in, moment of drizzle. Windy. 8 degrees C.
18-02-25FX29.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Upland, U Vic, Gordon Head, San Juan. Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge.
18-02-12FX32.5Beacon Hill, May, Moss. Thurlow, Richmond, Richardson, St. Ann/Musgrave, Upper Terrace, Cedar Hill X Road, San Juan, Lochside. Sunny, clear, 5 degrees C. Wind.
18-02-10FX32.1Blue Bridge, Goose-Lochside to Cordova Bay Road (Mattick's). Sunny. 6 C. Light wind. Almost nice, but the wind had a bite. A few dozen bikes out. Some recreational riders bundle up. Some roadies in hi-tec kit. The traffic meter at Hope Point was at 620 at 2:30. New things - a fence on the parking lot at the Red Lion. Construction on Lochside near Claremont. Stop sign for bikes at Saanich Road.
18-01-010Happy New Year

More Bread Machine Loaves

These loaves are mainly whole grain and multigrain. Multigrain means a blend of white flour, whole wheat flour and other grain flour, flakes or groats of buckwheat, oat and other grains (usually not rye flour). These loaves work differently depending on blend, hydration, yeast and machine cycle. I think multigrain loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

I use a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine, and I adapt recipes from recipe books, mainly from the Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”).   My salt measurement and yeast measurement are for 50% sodium.  The yeast measurement is customized for the SD-YD 250;  it may work in a machine with similiar features and cycle but may not work in other machines. I use Bakers’ percentage (B%) and deal with flour, water, salt and yeast by weight.

First, a white bread – French Bread, as written the Panasonic Manual. French bread bake cycle – one size recipe; 3 cups of flour (medium loaf) that comes out in a block that fills the extra-large pan.  It can be scaled down. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text:

 "Medium" Loaf"Medium" Loaf @ 67%@ 50%
IngredientVolumeWeight g.B%
White flour3 cups417 100278209
TFW417100278209
Butter1 tbsp.67 tbsp = 2 tsp.5 tbsp
Salt (recipe)1.5 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp4.312.82.2
Yeast R1 tsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp1.4.31.7
Water1.3125 (1 + 5/16) cups31074207155

My sister makes a Flax Seed Whole Wheat bread with 2.5 cups of whole wheat flour, 1 cup of white flour, oatmeal, sunflower, flax and poppy seeds, flax meal, and 1.75 cups milk.  This works in her machine, producing a loaf with a fairly open crumb. I wanted a medium recipe with 3 cups of flour that could scale for smaller loaves. The BLBMC (p. 118) formula uses 1 cup whole wheat flour, 2 cups of bread flour.  So does a formula on the web Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread. I used the latter version, with a shift to more whole wheat flour; and added the ingredients of my sister’s recipe.

The BLBMC used 1 cup whole wheat and 1.125 (1 + 1/8) cups water. The shift to more whole wheat and the addition of rolled oat and flax meal requires a small amount of water for hydration, between one and two tablespoons more of water. One tablespoon is 1/16 of a cup. The water can be added as water, when using milk powder.

This dough finds a couple of teaspoons of water in 3 tablespoons of honey. Switching to fluid milk adds quality – but requires some attention.

Unpasteurized milk can lead to surprizes. Some bakers think milk,  real or reconstituted, should be scalded to denature proteins. I don’t spend time and energy on this.

The medium loaf was a little lopsided. My attempts to bake smaller loaves based on this recipe have been educational. When this works, it has a firm crust and a dense crumb that holds up for firm sandwich slices. I

The formula, by volume or weight and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in bold text and alternatives in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.  I thought it was better with milk.

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafScaled @ 75%
VolumeWeight
[Fluid Weight]
B%
Whole Wheat2 cups
1 cup
278 61209
White Flour1 cup
2 cups
13931104
Flax meal2 tbsp12039
Rolled Oats.25 cup250619
T. Flours/strong>454100
Flax Seed3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Poppy Seed1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Skim Milk Powder if Water, per BLBMC.25 cups
Salt @50%.5 tsp
1 tsp
2.8.622.1
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1 tbsp
Instant Yeast @50% **.7 tsp
2 tsp
2.01.5
Olive Oil3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp60
[12]
3
[x]
45 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.3 cup
(1 + 1/3)
(325 ml)
320 g
[290]
240 g.
if 1% Milk337 g
[285]
if Waterper BLBMC
1.31.125 cups308 g.268 g.
Fluid Weight30267

I make a loaf I call Pembina Bread: a white flour loaf with seeds, based in BLBMC Dakota Bread (p. 119). Named for Pembina, North Dakota, important to Winnipegers. The gateway to Fargo and Grand Forks; the site of KCND, the first American TV network affiliate transmitter that reached antennas in Winnipeg (later purchased by Canadian owners and moved north of the border as CKND). The formula, by volume and weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changes in italic text. 

 Medium Loaf
Volume
Weight@ 75%@ 2/3
B %
Whole Wheat.625 cups
.5 cups
87655821
White Flour2.25 cups31323521075
Bulgur.125 cups
.25 cups
2015135
TFW420100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.33.22.91
sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups3 tbsp2.5 tbsp
pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups3 tbsp2.5 tbsp
sesame seeds1.5 tsp1.125 tsp1 tsp
poppy seeds2 tsp1.5 tsp1.25 tsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *7/16 tsp
2 tsp
1.2.9.8.3
Water1.25 cups300 g.22520071

Cornell Bread is a BLBMC recipe (p. 161), based on Cornell bread developed by Clive McCay of Cornell University first published in 1955 in a short book called The Cornell Bread Book. The BLBMC bread machine version has been emulated and published on the Web e.g. here. It uses an egg, milk powder, and soy flour for protein, and wheat germ for fiber. 

Dr. McCay is reported to have believe that this bread, with butter, was a sufficient healthy and nutrious diet. A nearly vegetarian scientific health food, 30 years before the vegetarian prescriptions of Diet for a Small Planet. Dr. McCay, a scientist in animal nutrition, experimented on mice to prove that bread made with bleached white flour was not as healthy as bread made with unbleached flour.  The 1980 edition of the Cornell Bread Book is still available.  The recipe is presented in recipes  and articles on prepper and counterculture sites.  The recipe  was developed during the Great Depression.  Food security was recognized as an issue in America more clearly then than now. Eleanor Roosevelt’s Kitchen, a 2010 article in the New Yorker, looked back at the campaigns by home economists at Cornell to  promote economical recipes for American kitchens in hard times.  Americans were persuaded that hard times ended by 1945, and food writers began to treat the austerity diet  in recipes for Bulldog Gravy  or like Depression Cake in M.F.K. Fisher‘s How to Cook a Wolf as as a memory

A brown bread. Slightly sweet, and rich. The white flour gives it some lift. This loaf taught me a lesson about hydraton. My first attempt was the medium loaf. I missed a digit in entering the water in the calculator. I used 1.25 cups x 236 (=295 g). The correct amount was 1.125 cups x 236 (=266 g). One eight of a cup. The dough was sloppy. I shook some white flour in (not measured, 3 or 3 tbsp) with about 10 minute of mixing time left to get a dough that held up. The loaf had an open crumb and cratered. My attempt to scale formulas down to make smaller loaves is a story in itself. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  Whole wheat cycle.

 Medium Loaf
Volume

Weight
Fluid
@ 75%
@ 2/3
B %
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.15614048
White Flour1.125 cups156 g.11710536
Soy flour.33 cups40 g.30 g.27 g.
Wheat germ 1.5 tbsp6.5 g.4.9 g.
Milk Powder.25 cups25 g.19 g.17 g.
Flour Total437100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.2.9 g.
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.5 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *1.25 tsp
2.5 tsp
3.5 g.2.6 g.2.3 g.
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Egg
Large
157 g.36 g. 11
Honey2 tbsp40 g.8 g.1.5 tbsp
(6 g. water)
1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Water1.125 cups281205180
Fluids32572

Sunflower Oatmeal Bread is the BLBMC (p. 323), bread machine adaptation of Celeste’s Sunflower and Oatmeal Bread in Beth Hensperger’s 1988 Bread. Low sodium; yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled, with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium Loaf
Volume
WeightWater@ 2/3
Weight
@ 2/3
Water
B %
Whole Wheat.5 cups79 g.53 g.
White Flour2.5 cups348 g.233 g.
Oatmeal.5 cups
50 g33 g.
(1/3 cup)
TFW477100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.2.9 g.1
sunflower seeds
raw
.5 cups1/3 cup
Butter1.5 tbsp1 tbsp.
Gluten
per BLBMC
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *.375
.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.1 g..7 g
Molasses1 tbsp.2 tsp.
Honey2 tbsp.21 g.5 g.14 g.
(1.34 tbsp)
1 tbsp + 1 tsp.
3.25
Egg, Large157 g.36 g.57 g.36
Buttermilk.625 cups150 g.148 g.100 g.
(.42 cups)
99 g.
Water.5 cups112 g.112 g.74 g.74 g
Fluid30165

Buttermilk Whole Wheat BLBMC p. 108. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup; salt reduction, and yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. Estimating the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup helped to tune the overall hydration. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf @ 75%
VolumeWeight FluidB%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20950157
White Flour1.5 cups20950157
TFW418100314
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.33 tbsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.4.331.1
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g13 g.1.5 tbsp
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.250 g. 210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid26363

Zarathustra’s Bread is BLBMC (p. 126) “Tecate Ranch Whole Wheat”. BLBMC named it for a spa in Baja California that serve this bread, developed by a chef at spa in San Diego which used New Age Zoroastrianism as one its themes. Exotic naming is a staple of Counter-culture marketing to consumers with a taste for the bohemian in their lives. For a more SF reading of the name, consider watching 2001: a Space Odessey, listening to the fanfare of Thus Spake Zarathustra. Imagine the loaf as the monolith. Freshly baked whole wheat is tasty. But 100% loaves can dry out or go stale fast.

100 % whole wheat, honey, molasses and poppy seeds. Low sodium; yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled, with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

IngredientMedium Loaf
Volume
Medium
Weight
B %@ 75%
Whole Wheat3.25 cups452339
Wheat Germ
Wheat Bran
.25 cup
.33 cup
3 tbsp
TFW100
Gluten2.5 tbsp
Salt @ 50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.33.2 g.
Yeast R1 tsp
Poppy Seeds1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Inst. Yeast *.75 tsp
1 tbsp
2.11.6 g.
Honey.125 cups
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Molasses.125 cups;
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Water1.33300 g.
314 g.
225 g.
236 g.
(1 cup)

Recipe Summaries

These are the bread machine recipes I used working out my approach to yeast and low sodium in  baking in a Panasonic SD-YD250 for medium (1.5 lb.) loaves June, July and August, 2018. The test table [T] at the end of this post notes my test of the recipes at the time.  In that final table I state the flour, fluid, salt and yeast used in one particular trial – which often failed. Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”) recipes did not work as published.  

I present several recipes in tables with volume, weight, baker percentage, and ingredients, scaled for smaller loaves.  Others are summaries of the source for a medium loaf. Some tables and lists are based on BLBMC  formulas. I mark the parts of the source formula that I change, and I insert changes . White flour means bread flour; where a recipe said bread flour; I used Canadian All-Purpose.

My tables and summaries all reduce salt to  50% salt, and adjust yeast (1) for salt and (2) for this machine and other Panasonic machine

Basic White Loaf is in the Panasonic Manual or online. Basic bake cycle. Panasonic presents this recipe in M, L, XL in the manual, as a milk bread (milk instead of water), and as a basic sandwich loaf. This recipe works at published for medium loaves  and as scaled to small. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.

IngredientMedium Loaf
Volume
Medium Loaf
Weight
@ 2/3Percentage
White Flour3 cups417 278
TFW417278100
Milk Powder1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Sugar1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Butter1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.32.81
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
1 tsp
1.41.3
Water 1.25 cups29519871

100% Whole Wheat is in thePanasonic Manual or online at 100 % Whole Wheat. Bake Whole wheat cycle. This recipe works at published. Low salt, bakers percentage, and scaled to small loaf. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic:

IngredientMedium Loaf
Volume
Medium Weight@ 75%Percentage
Whole Wheat3 cups417 g313 g
TFW417313100
Milk Powder1.5 tbsp1.125 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Butter1.5 tbsp1.125 tbsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.33.21
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
1 tsp
1.41.1.3
Molasses1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Brown sugar01 tsp
Water 1.25 cups295 g230 g71

Chuck Williams’s Country French is from BLBMC (p. 200).  Beth Hensperger adapted a recipe from her 2002 bread book in Williams-Sonoma collection. It was a recipe for La Cloche device; in the style of Pain de campagne, with whole wheat (not rye) flour.  A lean French bread: 25% whole wheat, 75% white flour, water, salt, yeast; without milk, butter or sugar.  BLBMC says Basic or French bread cycle.  Those cycles use a more intensive mix, and I back off on yeast and water.  The loaf has a firm crust and a reaonably open crumb. Low salt, B% and scaled. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium Loaf@ 2/3
IngredientVolumeWeightB%
White Flour2.25 cups313 g75210 g
Whole Wheat.75 cups104 g2570 g
TFW417 g100280
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g12.9 g
Instant Yeast *3/8 tsp
7/16 tsp
1 3/4 tsp
1.1 g.3.7
Water1 + 3/16 cups
(1 cup + 3 tbsp)
1.25 cup
28071196

Pembina Bread is adapted from BLBMC (p. 119) or Beth Hensperger blog: Dakota Bread. The source recipe says basic bake cycle, and uses .5 cup of whole wheat for a medium loaf.  Chuck Williams Country French, above, use .75 cups of whole wheat.  The bulger takes up a little water, which changes the hydration.  I use less bulgur than the BLBMC source, and  whole wheat bake cycle. Low salt, B% and scaled. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic

 Medium Loaf
Volume
Weight@ 75%@ 2/3
B %
Whole Wheat.625 cups
.5 cups
87655821
White Flour2.25 cups31323521075
Bulgur.125 cups
.25 cups
2015135
TFW420100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.33.22.91
sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups3 tbsp2.5 tbsp
pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups3 tbsp2.5 tbsp
sesame seeds1.5 tsp1.125 tsp1 tsp
poppy seeds2 tsp1.5 tsp1.25 tsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *7/16 tsp
2 tsp
1.2.9.8.3
Water1.25 cups300 g.22520071

Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread is an adaptation of a BLBMC recipe (p. 118), with changes discussed in my post on Other Recipes, and changes for low sodium. I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafScaled @ 75%
VolumeWeight
[Fluid Weight]
B%
Whole Wheat2 cups
1 cup
278 61209
White Flour1 cup
2 cups
13931104
Flax meal2 tbsp12039
Rolled Oats.25 cup250619
T. Flours/strong>454100
Flax Seed3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Poppy Seed1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Skim Milk Powder if Water, per BLBMC.25 cups
Salt @50%.5 tsp
1 tsp
2.8.622.1
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1 tbsp
Instant Yeast @50% **.7 tsp
2 tsp
2.01.5
Olive Oil3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp60
[12]
3
[x]
45 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.3 cup
(1 + 1/3)
(325 ml)
320 g
[290]
240 g.
if 1% Milk337 g
[285]
if Waterper BLBMC
1.31.125 cups308 g.268 g.
Fluid Weight30267

Three Seed Whole Wheat Bread is my adapatation of the BLBMC recipe (p. 116). It is a low sodium recipe.  When I depart from the recipe, I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 Medium Loaf
Volume
Weight @ 75%B %
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20915750
White Flour1.5 cups20915750
TFW418314100
Dry Skim Milk3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Sunflower Seed1/3 cup2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Sesame Seed
2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Poppy Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Sunflower Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Salt @50%.5 tsp
1 tsp
2.9 g2.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1 tbsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.41.1.33
Water1 + 3/16 cups
1.25 cups
280 g
295 g
210 g.70

Scandinavian Light Rye is based on BLBMC (p. 134).  In a table – low salt, B%. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. It works on basic bake cycle, medium loaf setting.

 MediumMediumMediumSmall
@ 75%
VolumeWeightB%
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups13534101
TFW396100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt @ 50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten
Instant Yeast
@ 50% salt *
.625 tsp
2.5 tsp
1.8 g.1.3 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g

Buttermilk Whole Wheat Bread is from BLBMC (p. 108). I didn’t quite get this during the trials in the summer of 2018. Medium-light whole wheat. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup as the sweetener. I did not feel sure about this, but it works with my salt reduction and my yeast adjustment for salt and for Panasonic. I worked out the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup and overall hydration. That may be a useful number to check other 50-50 loaves for hydration and yeast. I think multigrain 50-50 loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf @ 75%
VolumeWeight FluidB%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20950157
White Flour1.5 cups20950157
TFW418100314
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.33 tbsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.4.331.1
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g13 g.1.5 tbsp
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.250 g. 210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid26363

White Whole Wheat is mentioned in the test table at the end, trials 7, 8, 10, 11.  The source recipe from BLBMC (p. 127) “White Whole Wheat Flour Bread”. Also see variation with 3 cups of flour,  on basic bake “white bread” cycle. I never had White Whole Wheat flour. Home bakers report, in King Arthur comments, that the uses of this flour include using it in place of white flour for pancakes.

I substituted”Whole Wheat Bread Flour”, which was higher in protein (gluten) than the flour in the recipe. It was a lesson. I stopped looking for a flour that can’t be obtained in this part of Canada:

White whole-wheat flour is … made with hard white spring or winter wheat — the bran, germ, and endosperm are all ground to result in another 100 percent whole-wheat flour. … because it’s made with hard white wheat instead of hard red wheat, like whole-wheat flour, it has a paler color and its taste is milder. It’s still nuttier than all-purpose flour because it includes the fibrous bran and germ of the wheat, but it’s a more approachable whole-wheat flour, particularly for those who don’t enjoy the hearty taste of whole-wheat flour.
It can be used interchangeably with whole-wheat flour in any recipe

Source

A summary, with low sodium and a suggestion about yeast for the modern Panasonic machines. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.

IngredientMedium Loaf
Volume
Medium
Weight
Percentage
White Whole Wheat Flour3.25 cups
TFW100
Salt R1.5 tsp
Salt *.75 tsp4.31
Yeast R1 tsp
Inst. Yeast *.5 tsp1.4.3
Maple Syrup.25 cups
Olive Oil.125 cups;
(2 tbsp)
Water1.25 cups

Irish Potato Brown Bread is from the BLBMC (p. 117) This is a summary of a published recipe.  It is not what I would do in my Panasonic SD-YD250 and is not a low sodium recipe.  It is written for whole wheat cycle:

  • 2 cups whole wheat flour
  • 1 cup bread flour
  • .25 cup instant potato flakes
  • 1 tbsp + 2 tsp gluten
  • 1.5 tsp salt
  • 2 tsp instant yeast
  • 3 tbsp butter, cut in chunks
  • 2 tbsp honey
  • 1.25 cups water

Bohemian Black Bread is a BLBMC (p. 138) recipe.  It is not what I would do in my Panasonic SD-YD250 and is not a low sodium recipe.  Basic or whole wheat cycle:

  • 1.75 cups bread flour
  • 1 cup medium or dark rye flour
  • .25 cups wheat bran
  • 2 tbsp unsweetened Dutch Process cocoa
  • 1.5 tsp instant espresso powder
  • 1.5 tsp caraway seeds
  • .5 tsp fennel seeds
  • 1 tbsp gluten
  • 1.5 tsp salt
  • 2 tsp instant yeast
  • 3 tbsp butter, melted
  • 1.5 tbsp molasses
  • 1.125 cups water

The general conditions for the loaves in my test program:

  • Flour is noted in cups with measurement by weight most of the time
  • Wheat flour, by Rogers, a Canadian mill:
    • All-Purpose flour (i.e. bread flour); 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams;
    • Bread Flour for White Bread;
    • Whole Wheat flour; 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams.
    • Whole Wheat Bread Flour (a blend of Whole Wheat and white flour, and added gluten)
  • Rye Flour. In one trial, Nunnweiler Organic Dark (I had a bag in the fridge). Rogers Dark Rye Flour;
  • Yeast in tsp; in some trials in grams; 1 tsp = 2.8 g. Trials 1-6 Fleishmann’s Quick-Rise; others SAF Red Instant dry;
  • Salt in grams (For table salt 1 tsp = 5.7 grams); the % of the salt in the published recipe.

The Cm column is a rough measurement or estimate of the height of the loaf with some notations:

  • ^ gassed and rose to top of the pan or ballooned
  • / lopsided or asymmetric;
  • * a manual step to deflate the dough on that trial.
T.RecipeFlour
CycleWater*
cups
Gluten
tsp
Yeast
tsp or g.
Salt g.Cm
1Country French2.25 Bread
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.254.5 [51%]^
2Country French2.25 AP
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.254.5 [51%}11
3Dakota2.25 Bread
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.1257.5 [83%] ^
4Dakota2.25 AP
.5 whole wheat
1.2511 [50%]9 [100%]10*
5Basic White3 AP1.2501 [100%]10.5 [116%]10
6Country French2.25 AP
.75 whole wheat
1.25.251.259.28 [105%]10*
7White Whole3.25 wWhB1.2511.1259.10 [101%]14*
8White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.8759.15 [102%] 14
9Whole Wheat3 whole wheatWW1.250.5 [50%]6.9 [76%]10
10White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.55.25 [58%]14
11White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.3754.5 [50%]14
123 Seed3 wWhB1.250.53.1 [50%]11
133 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.250.5 3.0 [50%]8
143 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.251.5.6253.0 [50%]12
153 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.251.125.53.0 [50%]10
16Country French2.25 AP
.75 whole wheat
1.25.375.54.5 [50%]13
17FS Whole Wh2 AP
1 whole wheat
1.125.5.5 3.0 [50%]12.5
18FS Whole Wh9.75 oz. AP
4.875 oz. whole wheat
1.125.51.23 g.3.05 [51%]11.5 /
19Buttermilk WhWh7.375 oz. AP
7.375 oz whole wheat
B1.125
* Buttermilk
1.5.5 tsp 4 [44%]11 //
20Buttermilk WhWh7.3 oz. AP
7.3 oz. whole wheat
B1.25
* Buttermilk
1.0 tsp1.52 g. 4.1 [45%]11
21Irish Brown9.7 oz. whole wheat
4.875 oz. AP
1.251.5 tsp1.49 g. 4.45 [45%]13 /
22Whole Wheat14.6 oz. whole wheatWW1.25.75 tsp1.42 g. 4.52 [50%]11
23Sc Light Rye9.0 oz AP
1.125 cups rye
1.1251.5 tsp1.42 g4.51 [50%]11 /
24Bohemian Black8.5 oz. AP
1 cup dark rye
.25 cups wheat germ
B1.125 +
3 tbsp melted butter,
I tbsp espresso drip
1.5 tsp1.51 g.4.52 [50%]9 /
25Buttermilk WhWh207 g. AP
207 g. whole wheat
WW1.25
*buttermilk
1.5 tsp1.40 g.4.50 [50%]

Bread Machine Artisan Bread?

The Challenge

A bread machine cannot produce the shapes associated with rustic, country hearth, or “artisan” bread.  These loaves are shaped as round boules or oval batards (or torpedos), and baked on a deck, without a pan. A bread machine bakes a loaf in a pan. Artisan loaves tend to have firm or even crisp/crunchy crusts. There is no direct temperature control or temperature reading on a bread machine.  A bread machine create enough heat to bake a dark crust but cannot reach the temperature that bakes crunchy crusts.

A bread machine can become a mixer (and a proofing box) on a dough cycle. This saves labour. But a bread machine doesn’t have the alternative functionality that mixers offer.

The bread machine makes dough on a cycle.  A dough cycle will have an initial rest or preheat phase many machines (e.g. my Panasonic SD-YD250 has it on all dough cycles except pizza dough). Every machine will reliably mix the ingredients at a slow speed and move up to higher speed to work the dough.  There is some control of time.  For instance to avoid the more intensive mixing – just stop it when it is mixed.  And a pause after slow mixing can be made (to autolyse before more intensive mixing, or to add something), until the end of the phase. A few machines have a pause function, controlled by a button.  Most machines have a power interrupt that restarts the machine at the point in the cycle it stopped after short power outage.  This allows a pause of several minutes by unplugging the machine. The machine must be plugged back in, within the time limit or it goes back to the start of the cycle.

There are no options to slow down the mixing or change the time – just stop when you want to stop mixing, and rest or work the the dough.

Some breads use a fermented “starter” to introduce yeast and bacteria (sourdough, mother, chef, levain) or to enhance flavour (sponge, biga, poolish, pre-ferment, pate fermentee). Adding a starter during mixing means lifting the lid and/or taking out the pan, and putting it in manually.

Dough cycles have a rest phase and a rise phase allowing the dough to ferment in machine, and stop.  The user has options after on when to remove the dough after mixing, and other options:

  • the end of mixing
  • the end of the rise
  • after the end of the cycle for added bulk fermentation time
  • put the dough in the fridge to slow down fermentation
  • knock it down, knead by hand;
  • additional fermentation – a second rise before shaping the loaf

The user ultimately shapes it, let it rise and puts it into the oven in pans, on a baking sheet or in or on a ceramic sheet or apparatus (e.g. pizza stone) at whatever temperature the user wants.

The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook offers advice and several recipes/formulas at pages 196-297.  This is good advice but has to be adjusted for the machine.  For instance many machines can’t be paused

French Whole Wheat

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook p. 206 advise a dough cycle. I used {Whole Wheat} Dough cyle. BLBMC advises a knock down, additional fermentation/rise after the dough cycle.  These steps are superflous with a machine with a long rise phase and a knockdown in the rise phase.

The steps after the dough is out of the machine are shaping a torpedo loaf, final proof, scoring the loaf and baking at 400 F for 32-48 minutes:

  • 347 g. (2.5 cups) whole wheat flour
  • .5 cup spelt flour
  • {4.3 g. (.75 tsp)} salt [BLBMC 1.5 tsp]
  • {2.8 g. (1 tsp)} instant yeast [BLBMC 4 tsp]
  • 1 5/16 cups (1.25 + 1 tbsp) buttermilk
  • .5 cup water

The loaf looks like a loaf of rye bread – it has a dark crust.  The crust is soft, as might be expected with whole wheat.  It has a sticky crumb that leaves a residue on the bread knife, like an artisan OEM product sold in the local Thifty’s over the last two years before fall 2018.  The crumb is not as darkly coloured as 100%  whole wheat recipes which use dark brown sugar or molasses and oil – and not as dense.

Light Rye Bread

Introduction

I bake bread in a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine. Panasonic’s manual asserts rye flour leads to dense bread when used to replace other flour, and warns that mixing rye flour might  overload the motor.   This takes product warning too far. Authentic pumpernickel is outside the capabilities of bread machines. There are retail/craft/home formulas for a rustic style with rye flour, e.g.  King Arthur Classic Pumpernickel baked in an oven.  A bread machine can make a light rye.

Light rye breads are soft  breads made with wheat flour, with rye flour or rye meal for flavour and texture, or light rye flour. Also, there are (retail/craft/home) rustic rye and rye sourdough styles. Light rye bread may be made in pans, but also baked in a torpedo shape.

Rye bread has been baked with caraway seeds so often that consumers associate the flavour of caraway with the flavour of rye. Caraway is related to cumin, fennel, anise, carrots, celery and parsley. Some varieties are known as Persian cumin. It has been used as a cooking herb or spice since the time of the Roman Empire. It is a major spice in Central European cooking and in the nations beside the Baltic and was adopted in Germany, the Nordic countries and England. Cumin and caraway are the spice in Kamijnekaas – the spiced Dutch cheeses Leiden Kaas and spiced Gouda. Caraway is a strong flavouring, and may overwhelm other flavours in rye bread. Other flavouring agents: fennel and anise seeds, dried orange peel, orange zest and orange oil for flavour in varying amounts and combinations. There are dark or sour light rye styles (retail/craft/home/bread machine) with wheat flour, rye flour and cocoa or ground coffee for dark colour,vinegar or sour cream for acidity corn meal, oatmeal or sunflower seeds for texture.

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook has at least 9 recipes for light rye breads (at pp. 133-143, 313) with 25% – 35% rye flour by weight. This is manageable.  The BLBMC recipes scale to smaller loaves. BLBMC suggests baking light rye bread on the basic bake cycle for most recipes. The BLBMC assumes that a whole wheat bake cycle involves a longer kneading time and a longer rise. This is not the case for the SD-YD250. The whole wheat cycle has a shorter kneading time and longer rise. The dough seems to relax in last minutes of mix/knead on basic or whole wheat but it holds up and rises either way. It produces a better result on whole wheat

Rye flour has less of the proteins that build gluten than wheat flour.  It has pentosans which absorb water early in mixing but release it after periods of intensive mixing. The dough seems dry and elastic – it holds it shape and is slow to relax. According to Daniel DiMuzio’s Bread Baking, An Arisan’s Perspective (p. 51), bakers with control of speed and time would use a short period of slow mixing for dough with significant amounts of rye flour, and little faster intensive mixing DiMuzio notes (p. 216) that dough for deli-style light rye (80% white/20% rye) would be hydrated at 68% and mixed slowly: in a stand mixer, 3 minutes slow to blend ingredients and 3 minutes on second speed. The way to match this would be a custom cycle in a bread machine with that feature. With my less fancy machine, I could turn off the machine after slow mix and a few minutes of knead/mix and let it rise and finish it on the counter and int the oven; or in the machine:

  • let it sit, knock it down once with a spatula, let it “bench” rise and
  • plug it in and set to bake “cake”.

Rogers Foods mills Dark Rye Flour is available locally, and priced as a staple instead of a luxury good.  Rogers does not directly publish a volume to mass conversion. The food facts label indicates 1 cup = 120 grams = 4.2 oz.  Food Facts for Dark Rye flours from other mills are consistent.  120 grams is in the range of published values, which is confusing and wide.  Online Conversion’s converter and Aqua-Calc converter dark rye flour said 1 cup of dark rye flour = 4.5 oz. = 128 g.   The rest of the range:

  • BLBMC; Reinhardt’s Bread Bakers Apprentice – no factor stated
  • The Bakery Network conversion chart – 1 cup “rye flour” = 4 oz. = 113.4
  • Aqua-Calc converter light rye flour (or medium rye flour) – 1 cup = 102 g = 3.6 oz.
  • The Traditional Oven’s  converter – 1 cup = 102 g. = 3.6 oz.  light rye?
  • King Arthur Flour’s Ingredient Conversion chart – 1 cup = 3.625 oz.  light rye?

I put the recipes in tables. Where I made a change, I leave the source recipe amount or ingredient in strikeout. The salt measurement is a normal low sodium adjustment  – reduce salt and yeast by equal proportions.  The yeast measurement is customized for the Panasonic SD-YD250;  it may work in a machine with similiar features and cycle but may not work in many other machines.

Bread with Caraway and Onions – a recipe in the Panasonic manual with almost no rye flour. It evokes rye bread with caraway seeds. Caraway seeds were used to make flavoured breads with white flour in Central European recipes.

IngredientVolumeWeight g.@ 2/3Percentage
White Flour2.75 cup353 g.212 g93
Dark Rye Flour3 tbsp23 g15.1 g7
TFW376 g100
Sugar1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Caraway Seed1 tbsp2 tsp
Butter1.5 tbsp1 tbsp
Salt @ 50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.32.6 g.
Instant Yeast*.5 tsp
1 tsp
1.2 g..8 g.
Chopped Onion3/8 cup1/4 cup
Water1 + 3/16 cups27718674

Scandinavian Light Rye – a BLBMC recipe (p. 134).

 MediumMediumMediumSmall
@ 75%
VolumeWeightB%
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups13534101
TFW396100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt @ 50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten
Instant Yeast
@ 50% salt *
.625 tsp
2.5 tsp
1.8 g.1.3 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g

Swedish Rye Bread – a BLBMC recipe (p. 136).

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium Loaf@ 75%
VolumeWeightB %
White Flour2 cups278 g.65209 g.
Medium Dark Rye Flour1.25 cups150 g.35113 g.
TFW428 g.100
Fennel Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Dried Orange Peel1.5 tsp1 + 1/8 tsp
Salt @ 50%.625 tsp
1.25 tsp
3.6 g.2.7 g.
Gluten
Instant Yeast
@ 50% salt *
1 tsp
2 tsp
1.4 g.1.1 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Honey3 tbsp2.25 tbsp =
2 tbsp + 3/4 tsp
Water1.25 cups295 g.69221 g.

Steamed Rice

Steamed rice is rice cooked in water as opposed to being fried first (pilaf, biryani, some Mexican styles) or cooked as a risotto, paella, rice pudding, congee or other flavoured rice dish.  Rice absorbs water as it cooks.   Steaming is an absorption preparation.  Salt is optional. It does not play a part in the cooking process and is added for taste. Steamed rice can be cooked in a pot or cooking vessel, including a pressure cooker, over a heat source, or in rice cooker appliance. Multicooker appliances (e.g. Instant Pot) with a pressure cooker function or a rice cooker function can do steamed rice or other basic cooked rice

The slow cooker may do dishes the have some rice in a soup or stew. It does not do as well as other method with plain rice where the goal is fluffy grains.

Cooked rice can used in a dish, as an accompaniment to other dishes, fried or processed further, or added to other dishes e.g. Nasi Goreng is preparation of fried cooked long grain white rice.

The editors and authors of Cook’s Illustrated/America’s Test Kitchen have a theory or explanation for rinsing white rice. They published it a few times, including a concept 30 in The Science of Good Cooking (2012) with their summary of their “Test Kitchen Experiment”. Their aphorism is “Rinsing (Not Soaking) Makes Rice Fluffy).

CI/ATK publishes its own summaries of its test kitchen tests, but not the experimental parameters or data. They recommend considering the work of other cooks in other kitchens with other tools and techniques. But their tests are not scientific experiments that prove facts. CI/ATK concept 30 is that soaking rice is a waste of time for all rice, white or brown, regardless of kernel size but is useful for long grain white rice especially basmati and some medium grain rices, but not for short grain rice that is supposed to be creamy (for risotto) or sticky (for sushi and other Asian dishes). This is a useful generalization but not unique. For some kind of white rice, and some preparations, rinsing removes rice flour and talc and helps to keep it from getting sticky. Rinsing rice before cooking is uncommon with long grain white rice grown in the Southern USA, and with some European short grain rices (risotto rices or Spanish Bomba for paella.

Sri Owen, in The Rice Book (1993), said that steaming rice has two main steps.  Rice is simmered in water in a pot at the boiling point until the rice has absorbed the water.  Owen says that the pot can be left uncovered. At that point the rice is only parcooked. The traditional method of finishing rice is to cover the vessel and leave it on very low heat to steam the rice internally, taking it off the heat and leaving it covered. 

These steps can be compressed into a bringing the water to a boil,  covering the pot, reducing the heat. simmering, and finally resting off heat.  This method works with a (heavy) pot that disperses the heat evenly; a heavy tight lid to hold in the steam.  The heat must be reduced; the rice should just simmer. Leave it covered and set a timer. Remove from heat and set the timer for the final rest.

This requires a plan – how much water for how much rice, and how long to simmer.  The rice recipe at What’s Cooking America has a table of rice to water ratio and cooking times for several kinds of rice. The instructions at that site for cooking white rice are a bit contradictory.  There is a concise article by Fine Cooking magazine and some videos and notes at the Kitchn site. The ratio of long grain white rice to water is 1 cup of dry rice to 1.5 to 1.75  cups of water.  Some recipes go for more water. The cooking time can be from 12 to 20 minutes. The method works within a range of ratios and times.  The results may be more or less fluffy, absorbent or sticky. 

This technique works in a pressure cooker. The ratio is 1 cup of long grain white rice to 2 cups of water. When the water boils, the lid is locked and the pot is brought to high pressure, and the cooking time on high pressure is 4 minutes. Then rest off heat 10 minutes or more without releasing the pressure (i.e. do not use the release mechanism) – let the pressure drop as the pot cools.

Owen describes 3 other ways of finishing rice, including moving the rice into a collander and steaming the rice suspended in another vessel over boiling water.   This is basically parcooking the rice and put it in a steamer or collander, recommended by Jamie Oliver. Others cook the rice in boiling water, drain it, and rest the rice.

White Basmati Rice, a long grain aromatic rice originating from Northern India, Pakistan and Nepal can be cooked in a pot the same way as other white long grain rice, using about 1 cup of rice to 1.5 cups of water. Rinsing is recommended. The method is a traditional slow simmer. Refer to:

White Basmati Rice can be cooked in a pot on a stove by bringing the water and rice to boil, reducing the heat, covering the rice and simmering on low heat, and resting off the heat for 10 minutes. This is dependent on pot and heat control.  It works with:

  • 2.33 cups of water to 2 cups of rice, simmering 23 minutes, or
  • 2 cups of water to 1.5 cups of rice, simmering 19 minutes 30 seconds. 

Rinsed and soaked, White Basmati  rice can be cooked in a pressure cooker at the ratio of 1 cup rice to 1.25 cups water; the time can be 2-3 minutes on high pressure with a rest off heat as the pressure drops (i.e. not with a fast release).

Steaming brown rice takes more water, and longer cooking times. Recipes don’t  recommend rinsing or soaking brown rice. Long or medium grain brown rice:

  • conventional pot, 1 cup rice to 2.25 cups water, cooking time about 40 minutes;
  • pressure cooker, 1 cup of rice to 1.75 cups of water, cooking time 15-18 minutes (variation in the recipes). Rest off heat 10 minutes or more without releasing the pressure  – let the pressure drop as the pot cools.

Brown rice has more micronutrients and fiber than white rice.  All rice delivers carbohydrates, a source of glucose, an essential nutrient.  Getting brown rice to cook to point of tenderness and to taste good is another story.

Yeast, Salt, Flour

Bread baked in the Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine does not need as much yeast as recipes other than the Panasonic manual say:

  • The yeast dispenser for a machine that will bake an extra large (2.5 lb) loaf that may take more than 4 cups of flour does not hold much more that a tablespoon;
  • Panasonic’s  recipes (in the manual; see its online recipe resource pages) call for half the amount of yeast in typical recipes:
    • 1 tsp (instead of 2 tsp or more ) for 3 cups of flour for a medium loaf;
    • 1.5 tsp. for 4.375 cups of flour for extra large loaves;
  • Medium loaves  based on The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”) and other recipe resources filled the  pan, and had airy, weak crumb; some ballooned or cratered/collapsed/imploded.

I prefer low sodium bread machine bread. 50% salt reduction doesn’t affect the process or hurt flavour.  The principle is to reduce yeast by the same percentage as salt as suggested in BLBMC at p. 290 and by the Please Don’t Pass the Salt bread page

I monitored recipes in June-August, 2018. I peeked under the lid to see what happened – including the last part of the rise phase after the machine knocked down the dough.  I made manual interventions a few times – I ran a silicon spatula between the dough and the pan 5-10 minutes just before the start of baking to gently deflate the loaf. (Using a spatula risks marring the no-stick surface of the pan. Silicon spatulas are safer.)

I adjusted yeast in BLBMC formulas for white, whole wheat, and combined flour (multigrain), and formulas requiring 2 tsp  yeast for a medium loaf (a formula with 3 cups or 15 oz. flour +/- by weight). This approach resolved the inflation problem and produced loaves that were not inflated:

  • Ignore the amount of “bread machine yeast” in a formula in the BLBMC – (BLBMC has different amounts of SAF instant dry yeast and any other “bread machine yeast”)
  • Use half the amount in the recipe for SAF instant dry yeast in a BLBMC formula (instant or “bread machine” dry yeast in other formulas not specifically written for a Panasonic machine) i.e. reduce 2 tsp. for a medium loaf to 1 tsp.
  • Weigh yeast and know the correct conversion factor – 1 tsp of instant yeast weight 2.8 grams;
  • Weigh salt and know the correct conversion factor – assume a recipe is referring to conventionally ground table salt – 1 tsp weighs 5.7 grams.

For a Panasonic recipe I cut yeast and salt equally.  For a BLBMC or other recipe I make my “Panasonic” adjustment for yeast amount above first, then I cut yeast and salt equally.  When  I use 50% of a BLBMC recipe amount of salt, I use 25% of the BLBMC recipe amount of yeast (or less).

The recipes and my notes for that round of tests are in a separate post.

Continue reading “Yeast, Salt, Flour”
panasonic bread maker sizes

Reviews at Everyday Sandwich and Make Bread at Home describe and illustrate the Panasonic SD-YD250.  It has loaf size settings for medium (1.5 lb), large (2 lb) and extra large (2.5 lb) loaves baked in an extra large vertical rectangle pan.  The control is a button.  The default is XL.  Choices are locked out on some cycles.

It is not offered in Panasonic Canada’s online store as of late 2018, but is still offered in Panasonic USA’s web store and on Amazon. The Canadian store sells other Panasonic 2.5 lb loaf machines – the SD-RD250 and the SD-YR2500. These models have setting for medium and extra large loaves.
The SD-YD250 remains a good value machine.  It seems to have the motor, drive train, non-stick pan and heating element of the newer models. 

The SD-YD250 can bake daily or sandwich bread, whether with white flour or whole wheat, as well as I can bake those loaves in conventional baking pans in an oven. It can bake light rye bread with a mixture of white flour and rye flour, and other multigrain loaves.

The pan coating releases the loaf easily at the end of the bake cycle but the paddle stays on the shaft in the pan.  I don’t know if Panasonic has a uniquely effective coating, or has designed the connection fitting on the shaft and paddle in a better way, or if these innovation or features are present in modern machines by other manufacturers. (Removing the paddle from the pan can be done after the pan cools after taking the loaf from pan.  It works better before the bits of crumb around the end of the shaft dry out and bond the paddle to the shaft.)

The inside measurements  of the pan are 19 cm (7.5 inches) long by 14 cm (5.5 inches) wide in the pan’s normal operating configuration when it is vertical. Any loaf will be or should be 19 cm x 14 cm.   The pan is 14.5 cm (5.7 inches) bottom to top. In a Panasonic extra large pan, a 2.5 lb. recipe of 4.4 cups of flour and about 2 cups of liquid would bake a loaf over 14.5 cm “long”, 19 cm “high”, and 14 cm “wide”.

A medium loaf baked on a basic cycle has about 3 cups of flour and 1.25 cups of water or fluid. This dough is hydrated at 71%.  It could be baked in a 1.5 pound bread pan (about 2,600 cubic centimeters) – perhaps filling it.
A 1.5 pound conventional oven pan is 25 cm (10 inches) long, 13 cm (5 inches) wide and (about) 8 cm deep.

With white flour on the basic bake cycle, the height of  medium loaf from the bottom of the pan to top of the loaf at the wall of the pan would be around 75% of the height of the Panasonic extra large pan: about 9 cm at the side of the pan. To the top of the domed top of the loaf, 11-12 cm is reasonable; more is tall.  Height changes with:

  • type of flour (e.g. rye flour does not rise as well as wheat flour); or a small change in the amount of flour (1/4 cup), water, salt or yeast; or
  • cycle, e.g. French Bake – the bread rises and is less dense – more space for the same mass.

Height affects how I store and slice the loaf, and can be a sign that a loaf lacks structure.

There are two kinds of cycle, “bake” and “dough”.  Each cycle has three phases; a bake cycle has the fourth one:

  •  (Initial) Rest – the ingredients come to a common temperature. The heating element, as far as I can tell is used for short intervals but not enough to heat the outside of the machine;
  • Knead – mix the ingredients together, hydrates the flour, dissolves soluble starches and works the proteins into gluten.  In the basic bake cycle, the machine
    • mixes at slow speeds for 4 minutes,
    • mixes at a faster speed for 10 minutes, with several short pauses, rests for 3 minutes, mixes at the higher speed for 3 more minutes;
  • Rise – fermentation. 2 hours in basic bake cycle. There are clicks indicating that the heating element is deployed to keep yeast at a good temperature (the dough may heat up on its own) on a cooler day. The mixer drive is deployed for knockdowns in this rise phase in all cycles including the dough cycles. In basic bake cycle there are 2 sets of about 15 slow turns  at -2:00 and -1:40 on the countdown timer;
  • Bake – the heating element bakes the bread.

There are no speed controls on the control panel.  The motor seems to have two speeds: off and on.  Slow mixing involves turning the power on and off in short intervals.  Fast mixing means the motor is running.   

The knead phase performs a short slow mix which escalates into a several intervals at full speed.  

The machine forms a ball of dough centered on the paddle.  This machine has a long warm rise. After the second knock down (50 minutes before baking)  the dough should relax and flow to fill the bottom of the pan and rise again. In the first part of the bake phase, the dough should spring. A tenacious, elastic dough holds its ball shape for a long time. It may gather at one end of the pan.  The result is that the top of the baked loaf slopes. It isn’t a bad loaf – it just happens with some dough in this kind of pan.  There is a hydration zone.  A dough under 70% or a tenacious dough may not flow.  A wet dough may balloon or collapse.

BLBMC

Beth Hensperger wrote about baking for 15 years before writing cookbooks for specialty appliances in the Harvard Common Press‘s “Not Your Mother’s … ” series. Her baking books published by Chronicle Books, such as Bread (1988) capture the transition from home baking with the packets of Instant Dry Yeast, through the recovery of whole grain baking by whole earth hippies who became the original foodie artisans (the commercialization of the Counterculture). Her Bread Bible earned the 2000 James Beard Foundation award for a cookbook in the Baking & Dessert category.

The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (2000) (BLBMC) adapted hundreds of recipes for the bread machine. This involved a different approach to home baking to embrace technology and a more precise way of measuring. She tried to make it seem new and traditional at the same time. While Ms. Hensperger is clear about the importance of measurement of ingredients, she uses home cooking conventions in her recipes including measuring out ingredients by volume.

The section on using the machine to mix and knead dough for baking in an oven, and using artisanal baking methods is informative but a bread machine a labour saving tool, not a tool for artisinal baking.

I had a problem with BLBMC recipes in a Panasonic SD-YD250, which I solved.

The BLBMC implies that its recipes should work in any bread machine. It treated all bread machines (it listed 18 manufacturers in the market at the time) as equivalent, with a  warning to “Take Stock of Your Machine”. This oversells the capabilities of bread machines and undersells the complexities of adapting the knowledge of bakers for a consumer appliance:

  • Baking involves doing something until a result it observed (the dough is mixed and supple; it has risen, or is ready to bench or bake);
  • Some steps cannot be described to a novice without pictures and videos. A baker with some experience might know how a “shaggy” dough (whole wheat dough that has been mixed to the point that the ingredient including water have been blended and the flour has absorbed the water and can be kneaded to develop gluten and left to rise may be described as shaggy) differs from a dry dough that needs more water;
  • Machines work in simple steps, without feedback.  The designer can program combinations of steps that should produce results with some combinations of ingredients if the machine is loaded properly;
  • Machines are not all the same; some machines work with some doughs, and not others;
  • The book did not anticipate technological and market changes including the developments in growing and preserving instant dry yeast and changes in machine mixing.

BLBMC recipes have ingredient lists for “medium” 1.5 lb. and “large” 2 lb. loaves. A medium loaf usually uses 3 cups of flour – white, whole wheat and multigrain. The BLBMC recipes are consistent with other bread machine recipes and with conventional oven recipes. There are outliers; e.g. the recipe for a “medium” loaf of 100% whole wheat bread on p. 124 is 4 cups of flour with 1.5 cups fluid.  That is a 2 lb. loaf. “Tecate Ranch Whole Wheat” at p. 126 is a more workable 100% whole wheat loaf.

Like other bread and bread machine recipe books for the American market, the BLBMC says bread flour should be the white flour in bread recipes.   Ms. Hensperger describes bread flour as having 12.7 % protein. White bread flour in the USA has 11.5-13.5 % gluten-producing protein. All purpose white flour in the USA has 9.5-11.5 %.  Canadian all purpose flour is milled from hard red wheat, and has the same protein content as USA bread flour (Canadian Millers’ technical standards are not necessarily reflected in retail packaging). Canadian all purpose is fine for bread.

Ms. Hensperger favours the use of vital wheat gluten (gluten flour; added gluten) in formulas for many breads baked in the machine.  She suggested added gluten in almost every formula for bread baked in the machine up to 1 tsp of added gluten per cup, less gluten for bread flour. Added gluten changes the balance of the loaf and the performance of the dough (flow and rise); the effect may be different according to the machine. Adding gluten doesn’t improve white flour breads made with high gluten bread (Canadian AP flour. It doesn’t seem to help if the machine has well planned whole wheat cycle for whole grain breads.

Ms. Hensperger described the varieties of dry yeast as: 1. active dry yeast; 2. fast acting or instant dried yeast; 3. quick-rise (rapid-rise) yeast; 4. bread machine yeast.  There are few functional differences between 2, 3 and 4. Instant yeast, under any of its names, is the choice for bread machines.  Ms Hensperger prefers SAF instant yeast to the point that she says it is more potent. She suggests two alternatives for each recipe:

  1. SAF instant dried yeast (SAF Red),
  2. 25% – 33% more bread machine yeast than SAF instant dry yeast.  For instance, for Dakota Bread, BLBMC says 2 tsp SAF or 2.5 tsp bread machine*.

SAF makes a good product but its superiority may be debated. (*Ms. Hensperger has moved away from this  approach. In a version of the recipe for Dakota Bread in 2015 on her blog she said 2 tsp “bread machine yeast”).

The range of views about  the amount of yeast:

  1. For a 1.5 lb. loaf, Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook calls for 2 tsp instant dry yeast  or more and 1-1.5 tsp. salt for 3 cups of flour. This  is in the range of recipes in other books at the time, and of many recipes published on the web. It is .67 tsp instant dry yeast, or more, per cup of flour. This is 1.9 g. yeast per about 140 g. of wheat flour; the B% is 1.4%;
  2. Manufacturers of instant, rapid/quick rise and bread machine yeasts recommend .5 tsp yeast for each cup of flour for bread machines: Red Star Quick-Rise; Bakipan Fast Action and Bread Machine; SAF Gourmet Perfect Rise and  Bread Machine. Fleishmann’s  recipes on its web pages imply the same amounts of its instant Quick-Rise (Rapid-Rise) or its Bread Machine product, or more. This is 1.4 g. yeast per about 140 g. of wheat flour; the B% is 1%;
  3. Panasonic suggests .33 tsp of dry yeast per cup of flour.

Ms. Hensperger covers conversion from volume to weight for flour but not for yeast and salt.

Several online converters report: 1 cup, (48 tsp (US)) instant dry yeast = 136 grams; 1 tsp = 2.8 g. My average for 15 samples of 1 tsp of SAF Red was 2.8 g. It was worth testing.  It possible to test because instant yeast has a sandy texture and doesn’t pack down like flour;

Salt can be measured by volume with measuring spoons, but should be used carefully with level measurements. It is better to go by weight. The conversion rate is 1 teaspoon of table salt to 5.7 grams – the teaspoon that the recipe writer will have assumed.  Table salt is not all the same – some is pretty finely ground and more dense.

It is a uniquely useful book. It has worthwhile sections on bread machine operation and (pp. 38-39) on common failures. It has sections, sidebars, and detail sections on bread making and bread machine topics. The table of contents and the index don’t locate all of them.

  • p. 12 flour, and
    • pp. 46-47 white flour from wheat,
    • pp. 62-63 whole wheat and non-wheat grain flour,
    • p. 125 proteins in flour,
    • pp. 106-107 whole wheat flour,
    • pp. 133-135 rye flour.
    • p. 140 diy milling of whole grain flour,
    • pp. 150-152 non-wheat specialty flour,
    • p. 193 organic flour
  • pp. 13-14 yeast;
  • p. 13, p. 59 vital wheat gluten;
  • p. 15, p. 290 Salt
    • is not used as a seasoning or flavour agent;
    • should not be exposed to the water and the yeast before the machine mixes the ingredients;
    • can be reduced if yeast is reduced by the same proportion.
  • p. 15 ingredient measurement;
  • p. 18 converting volume to weight for flour and sugar;
  • pp. 69-72 6 “sampler” recipes for one pound loaves;
  • p. 76 eggs;
  • p. 168 dough enhancers;
  • pp. 170, 172 gluten free ingredients;
  • pp. 182-183 baking with whole grains, and preparing whole grain;
  • pp. 197-198 using the machine to mix and knead dough for baking in an oven, and using artisanal baking methods:
    • starters and pre-ferments,
    • shaping loaves
    • baking stones, tiles and ceramic containers (and cloches);
  • p. 233 olive oil;
  • p. 354 the shapes of bread machine pans.