Deer Hunting with Jesus

Joe Bageant was a journalist who wrote about how America misunderstood its white working class. He said in an inteview with the BBC in 2008 that white working class “rednecks” have political power, and were tending to conservative populism. Bageant’s comment on the financial crisis of 2008, Waltzing at the Doomsday Ball almost predicted the anger with elites triggered in the 2016 American elections by the Democratic candidate’s putting the white working class into the “basket of deplorables” who supported candidate Trump. His perspective and conclusions are “New Left”, and labor unionist – the working class has been oppressed by neoliberalism and neoconservativism.

Deer Hunting with Jesus is about the struggling, striving, suffering, white working class. It mentions gun culture, fundamentalism, alcohol, conservative talk radio, stock car racing, bass fishing, trailer parks, and country music.

Deer Hunting with Jesus mainly a book about the consequences for working class Americansof the collapse of the detente between capital and labour in America . It prefaces George Packer’s The Unwinding as an account of the hollowing out of the economy. Bageant addesses the disappearance of jobs ith stories about real people.

Bageant considered that much of the American working class has become hostile to “elites” who presume to teach, lead or influence working people. He identified some of the ideological and social influences, and struggles but struggles with history.

Bageant refers to the folk history foundation story of rednecks as the descendents Scotch-Irish immigrants. The common sense and widely accepted nationalist account of the history of working people, inequality and class in America history goes back to the bloodlines and culture of Scotch-Irish Americans and southern Poor Whites. This account endures was considered relevant by the author of Albion’s Seed and popularized in American Nations by Colin Woodard.

Migrants to America had to pay for passage – for 17th an 18th century immigrants from Britain, it meant joining a religious dissident group proposing settlement, or years of servitude and struggle. In America, settlers on the frontier occupied land and displaced the First Nations. This served English Imperial policy, until the settlers demand land and protection from the British Crown against hostile powers, including the First Nations. The American revolution was a revolution of American merchants and landowners against the institutions of colonial rule – a replacement of aritstocracy with oligarchy, in the guise of a democracy of hard-working strivers. The frontier culture favoured the strong and the brave – risk takers, prepared to resort to force to achieve worthy goals. This culture endures, but is not uniquely Scotch-Irish, British, Southern American, Appalachian, Western American or frontier. The history of people is a history of migration and struggle for shelter and subsistence.

Class, more than ethnic origins, is implicated. For instance, in the 1850’s the American Party proudly identified itself as the Know-Nothing party and engaged in violent protests that turned into riots. The history of class in divisions in America has been told in histories such as Nancy Isenberg’s White Trash, summarized in this Washington Post book review. I will have to read and consider that book.

Bageant argues that rednecks are an oppressed class that has so thoroughly absorbed American culture that it lacks class consciousness. Bageant’s view of the history of the working class seems to be based on popular histories – perhaps the Howard Zinn view of American history. Bageant seems to accept and adapt the Chomsky-Herman Manufactured Consent idea or the idea of a Polico-Media complex. Bageant accepts the idea that right-wing populism in America is exceptional. It may be unique and different, but right wing populism has appeared around the world.

Working persons want sufficient wages to live well, and to advance. Investors and manager want to extract labour from workers at the lowest cost, and to extract profits by selling the lowest quality goods and services and the highest profits that can be extracted. Working people are compelled to work with unpleasant co-workers and customers, and to take orders from bosses with arbitrary powers.

The working person must act from behind several literal veils of ignorance. Not surprizingly, life will appear chaotic and unfair. A person may suspect misinformation and systemic unfairness. The American redneck assumes that he knows what he needs to know, and has the capability and instincts to decide well and be successful and happy. The Dunning-Kruger effect is real, and exists as a consistent feature of thinking. Some people are consistently wrong – or just unlucky. The redneck is sure that someone is holding him back.

Redneck identity politics focusses on perpetuating the advantages, such as they are, of conservative white working people, against elites. Grievance at social “privilege” is at the root of identity politics. The word elite refers to political, social or economic advantage or “privilege In redneck identify politics it may be people who have “unfair” advantages, or anyone who does not know their place in society. Redneck populism is egalitarian in a levelling way. It is disrespectful both of “elites” and of persons who may be trying to gain advanages over members of the working class. It is also rudely sceptical. Elites may include corporations, investors, educated persons, managers and marketers. Competitors for economic opportunity may include immigrants, workers in other countries, minorities, women, or members of other ethnic or racial groups.

The resentment of unfair competition intersects with nationalism, racism and fascism. Notoriously, 20th century European fascist theorists rationalized the identification of enemies as central to patriotism:

“The specific distinction to which political actions and motives can be reduced is that between friend and enemy,”
For Schmitt, the friend/enemy antithesis was integral, even “existential,” to politics. It was existential in three senses: the enemy needed to be “existentially something different and alien”; opposing such an enemy was the essence of identity; and, in the implicit combat that followed, these enemies posed an existential threat. “The friend, enemy, and combat concepts receive their real meaning precisely because they refer to the real possibility of physical killing”.

The terrifying rehabilitation of Nazi scholar Carl Schmitt“, The New Statesmen America, April 10, 2019

Who should the working person trust – oligarchs, managers, marketers, academics, politicians, revolutionaries, gurus, influencers?

Android Apps

Android Apps evolve to keep up with technology: new versions of the Android OS, new features (e.g. Chromecast)

I used PocketCasts happily to search for and download podcasts. It was acquired by some podcast content providers in 2018, and “upgraded” to version 7 in March 2019. I noticed bugs – the phone got hot and showed high battery use (this was noted in a Reddit thread); playback froze when I used the cast function to play it over my home audio. Also, the app nagged and nudged users to create an account and log in to a Web service. The bugs may have been tied to using the service without registering. Others complained that some features disappeared.

There are podcast/media player apps with more features and less bugs.

I found Player FM as a replacement for PocketCasts. It did not nudge to create an account – it would not start without creating an account and logging in with a third party service.

Many new Apps require a login with Google or Facebook. A user id is a good data key but is based on personally identifiable information. This is essential data to make surveillance economics work.

I have an Android streaming box. The home page is an Android TV App launcher skin. It came preloaded with “home screen channels” presenting rows of “Play Next” links – suggestions – from Netflix, Amazon Prime and Google Play. These channels can be turned off. These channels extend the services onto the device home page, even when the Apps themselves are not otherwise active.

For about 3-4 weeks, a Google App Store “App Spotlight” channel would show up every time I turned the box on, even after I switched it off on the previous session. There was a Reddit – people suggested turning off Google Play services updates to kill the zombie channel. Others thought that Google would patch it.

These services want my attention, even when I have other ideas of how to spend my time and what to watch. I used to think when I bought a device I owned it and could control it. But somebody thinks I owe a company my time to take pitches for new content and services.

Dry Hard

Pulses; Dal

Naturally dry pulses, the seeds of several legumes are inexpensive but take time to cook, which uses time and personal energy, and fuel or power. Dry pulses last years. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization recognizes 11 types of pulses harvested as dry grains: dry beans, dry broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, cow peas, pigeon peas, lentils, bambara beans, vetches, lupins and pulses nes (not elsewhere specified). Split pulses are commonly called grams. Some whole pulses are called grams. It depends on the source of information.

Lentils are variants of one or two species in the genus Lens. They have a flat, disk-like shape. In the North American grocery market, the common products are large brown and green lentils grown in the USA and Canada, noted in the Lentil#Types section on the Wikipedia page.

Peas are round; variants of Pisum sativa. Chickpeas are in the genus Cicer. White chickpeas (garbanzo bean; Egyptian pea; kabuli chana) have been grown, cooked and consumed around the Mediteannean and in Asia as far east and south as India for a few millenia of recorded history. In India, dark chickpeas (aka bengal gram) have been cultivated since before recorded history.

Most kidney-shaped or oval beans are variants of Phaseolus vulgraris, a pulse that evolved in South and Central America. The American variants include pinto, navy, Great Northern, lima, red kidney, cranberry and black turtle beans. Phaseolus has travelled and been modified and used in European and Indian agriculture and cooking. Cannellini beans (white kidney), and Great Northern beans were adopted in Italian, Mediterannean, and European cooking and agriculture. Red Kidney beans have become a north Indian food.

Some sources recite old botanical taxonomy and refer to some European and Asian dry beans as Phaseolus. Broad beans, and faba (or fava) beans are vetches (Vicia faba); Lupini beans are lupins. Broad beans and lupins are the original Meditaranean and European dried beans.

Green beans, string beans and soybeans are not dry beans.

Canned beans are cooked to a point, canned, and cooked in the can at high temperature. Canned beans are high in sodium, except for some brands.

In Indian cooking, dal may refer to small pulses: lentils, urad beans, mung beans, and pigeon peas. It may include and to split chickpeas. A recipe may include other pulses; the term covers many pulses. This Indian cooking site explains and has images. I like Anupy Singla’s books (I am not sure what whethet her Internet ingredient store is the most economical way of getting ingredients). She explains the terms for whole, split and skin or skinless legumes.

English namesDescriptionIndian namesBotanyCooking
Brown lentilwholemasoor dalgenus LensIndian lentils are small;
American lentils are larger
Red lentil;
pink lentil
split brownmasoor dal duhligenus Lens
Mung bean;
Green gram
wholesabut moong dalVigna mungo;
South Asian peas;
Mung beansplit, skinnedmoong dal;
duhli moong dal
Vigna mungo
Urad bean;
black gram
wholesabut uradVigna mungo;
South Asian peas
hard; long cooking time
Urad beanspliturad dal chilkaVigna mungo
Urad beansplit, skinnedurad dal duhliVigna mungo
Pigeon peawholesabut toor dalgenus Cajanus;
India; South-East Asia
Pigeon peasplitduhli toor dalCajanus
Chickpea (white)
Garbanzo bean
wholekabuli chanagenus Cicer
Chickpea (black)
Bengal gram
wholedesi chanaCicer
Chickpea (black)splitchana dalCicer
Cowpea
Blackeyed peagenus Vigna;
Africa; spread to
America and India
Red Kidney beanrajmaphaseolus vulgaris;
central American,
spread to India

Cooking

Dried pulses have to be cooked in water. Old pulses are drier and harder to cook. Age is not easily judged from appearance.

The cooking time depends on the seed, age and cooking method. Many recipe books understate cooking time for some pulses, The age of the pulse cannot be identified easily. Soaking before cooking reduces the cooking time, saving energy and giving the cook some confidence about getting the beans cooked on schedule for a predictable meal time. There are varations – soaking in brine; adding baking soda to the cooking water.

Mexican and Central American cooks simmered pinto beans and black (turtle) beans in an olla in enough water to keep the beans covered in water through the entire process – clay pot cooking. The beans would be cooked for several hours. Little water was lost to evaporation. The beans absorbed much of the water, and the cooking fluid became a broth. With this method, the beans were not soaked or pre-cooked. According to Rick Bayless writing in Mexico, One Plate at a Time (Scribner, 2000), cooking in an olla heated the beans and water to 205-210 degrees (F), just below boiling.

A beanpot or casserole (e.g. a Dutch Oven) filled with beans and water can be put in an oven. This is the preferred method for baked beans. An oven might be set as low as 250 F to simmer the beans slowly; many recipes suggest a hotter oven. The constraints on slow simmering and baking are to start early enough to get the beans soft and well cooked by meal time, to use enough water, and to keep the heat low and steady.

Dried pulses can be cooked in cooking vessels on home stoves. Stove and ovens became the preferred approach where hot stoves were workable, including Europe and North America. Stovetop elements and burners heat the contents of metal pots above the boiling point of water, even at the lowest settings. With stoves, metal pots and cheap energy or fuel, the prevalent approach became to soak and boil.

The slow cookers manufactured in the USA in the 1940s were beanpots: a crock, heated with an electric element, designed to braise food in liquid at low heat and slowly bring the ingredients to a sufficient temperature to make the food tender and digestible and kill bacteria. A slow cooker is effective to cook pulses on their own, as a bean dish. Rick Bayless recommends using a slow cooker for black bean and pinto beans, without soaking, flavouring the cooking water with dried herbs and peppers, and using the cooking water as a gravy. A simple crock pot type slow cooker will cook dried beans in water, in time. Pinto beans do well with about 8 hours on low. Black turtle beans can be done in 6 hours. Lentils only take a few hours in a slow cooker.

Dal can take a long time in slow cookers – urad are hard, rajma are large red kidney beans and chana dal are chickpeas. I have recipes that for curried chickpeas that cook, starting from dry (i.e. not soaked) beans, 12 to 14 hours on high.

Dried split peas did not cook well in a slow cooker, in my experience.

With a slow cooker, and time, soaking beans is not required. If the beans are presoaked, the amount of water in the cooking pot can be lower – the beans will not absorb water and expand as much as they cook.

A slow cooker recipe with pulse in a stew (or a chili) should be done either with canned beans or in stages, with the pulses done first.

I used a 6 quart Crock Pot with a removable ceramic insert and a manual off-low-high switch for years. It heated the ingredients enough: it created humidity under the lid and some bubbling in the pot; some ingredients would bake to the sides. I made stews and chilies that filled the pot to 2/3 to 3/4, cooked on low for 5-7 hours. I refrigerated or froze leftovers. These recipes require precooked dried beans or canned beans

I tried a recipe with dry white chickpeas once. The other ingredients were well cooked at 6 hours on low before but the beans were not done – rather crunchy. Chickpeas are said to need 3 hours or 4 hours on high in a crock pot or slow cooker. I haven’t tried that; I won’t. I am suspicious about recipes that say that chickpeas can be done in less than 10-12 hours. I have done curried chickpeas (using a chana masala spice blend); cooking time of 14 hours on high. I prefer pressure cooking to cook or parcook chickpeas before slow cooking.

A pressure cooker is a good way to cook dried pulses. There is a risk of overcooking split pulses which is a benefit if the cook wants soft texture. There is a risk of splitting the skins of larger pulses – my reaction is: so what. I like my beans cooked, not chewy. Modern pressure cooking cookbooks and resources have methods for dried pulses.

If chickpeas have been soaked, they take about 15 to 18 minutes on high pressure in a pressure cooker. Some books say 8-10 minutes but that only parcooks them.

The multicooker (e.g. Instant Pot) is an electric pressure cooker with a metal pot or insert, and controls to pressure cook or slow cook . The element in these devices is at the bottom of the pot; the power to the element is programmed to maintain a steady temperature. They can reach a safe slow cooking temperature and maintain it.

Pressure cooker books that cover electric pressure cookers are useful for cooking with multicookers. Slow cooker recipes work in multicookers.

Using a glass lid in a multi-cooker on a slow cooker setting, the food is in a safe range but not as warm as the manual says for that setting. With the pressure lid on (and the valve open) the food cooks hotter; often more than the manual says. The device does not give the cook as much control of temperature and time as may be assumed.

Small Loaves

Home baked bread is at its best the first day after the fresh loaf has cooled. It loses its appeal after a couple days. Making small loaves is a way to make enough to last for a short time – without toasting the last several slices, or freezing part of a fresh loaf. A small recipe, in bread machine terms, would be a 1 pound loaf made with 2 cups of flour. There are 1 lb machines on the market including Zojirushi models (expensive), and some Panasonic models (expensive; not available in USA or Canada; available on Amazon).  Some large and extra large machines have settings for small loaves. The smallest loaf setting in the Panasonic bread machines with “extra large” (2.5 lb) pans, such as my SD-YD250, is medium – a 1.5 lb. loaf made with 3 cups of flour.  Methods for making small loaves using a bread machine:

  • scale to a smaller version of a recipe, mixed and baked in the machine on medium loaf settings. This is what I am focussing on in this post;
  • mix in the machine on dough cycle; rest for rise and/or divide/shape the dough and bake in the kitchen oven.

Overmixing is a risk in principle with a scaled down loaf. The mixing process can stretch the dough too much or too often, and break the gluten strands. An overmixed dough cannot hold the gases, and will not rise.  Intensive mixing may affect a loaf with effects short of the complete failure caused by overmixing. Food processors can mix dough, although a food processor might only handle 3 cups of flour, and may only have one speed – very fast.  The mixing time may be less than a minute.  Some food processors have a dough speed and/or special blade to mix dough. The risk of overmixing dough in a food processor is well recognized.  A variety of mixers are available to the home baker. A home stand mixer can handle several cups of flour, at low-medium speed settings.  The power output of a Kitchen Aid stand mixer with a 5 quart bowl may be 325 watts.  A Bosch Compact Kitchen Machine may output 400 watts into its dough hook in its stand mixer configuration. Larger models may output 800 watts.  They have to be used at the right settings and for a short time. The Panasonic SD-YD250 has a 550 watt motor, and runs for 50- 60% of the time in a 25 minute +/- mixing phase on a medium loaf setting.  The heating element, rated at 550 watts, is outside the pan, around the bottom about 1 cm above the bottom. Heat is applied for intervals.  A small loaf develops hot spots around the base of the pan but is not burned.

The area of the rectangular pan is 266 square centimeters: 19 cm (7.5 inches) by 14 cm (5.5 inches). A small recipe would fill the pan to a depth of less than 3 cm. The Panasonic kneader paddle is 6 cm long, radially.  It is 2.6 cm high, rising to a fin 5 cm tall. The dough ball may not touch the sides of the pan, but centrifugal force stretches the dough away from the paddle. The edge of the ball sticks to the pan, and snaps away.  The machine can knead a small recipe.

A small loaf should rise and spring to a height of 7.5 cm or more, above the top of the kneader, and flow enough. If dough does not flow, the loaf will be irregular.  Flow depends on hydration, on how the gluten relaxes, and the mass of the ball. Even a medium recipe may not flow enough – which usually means one end of the loaf is taller. Scaling down to 2 cups or less does not work well in machines with extra large tall rectangular pans, like my Panasonic SD-YD250, except for a few recipes e.g. French Bread.

Many small loaves get lost in the big pan, and bake in odd shapes. When the dough ball for a small loaf rests at one “end” of the pan, the loaf may not flow to fill the bottom of the pan and may bake at that one end of the pan.  The ball may settle at one end, flow to fill the pan in the 14 cm dimension, but not 19 cm dimension.  The loaf was properly baked – just short.  Generally, and leaving aside recipes for the French bread cycle and dough cycles, 2 cups of flour does not make a large enough dough ball. I find it better, in recipes for basic and whole wheat bake cycles, to work at 75 % of the medium (3 cup) recipe.

An off-center ball can be centered to avoid a sloping loaf.  The best time is right after the last knockdown (in a Panasonic SD-YD250 about 50 minutes before baking starts. A pause to extend the rise helps to get a little more pan flow. If the machine has a power interrupt but not a pause function (like mine) the machine cycle can be paused  by unplugging the machine.  It has to be plugged in within a time limit (for my machine, 10 minutes) to resume where it stopped.  This may have be repeated.  Other ways to extend the rise longer are to stop or shut down the cycle and:

  • leave the dough in the machine pan to rise, and start the machine later on the Cake or Bake only cycle;
  • put the dough in a conventional pan, let it rise, and put it in the kitchen oven.

The first step is get a scale by reference to total flour; by recipe size (volume); e.g. 3 cups (medium) to 2 (small): 2/3, or 75% of a medium recipe. Scaling from volume is possible, with careful calculation and measurement. Such as – 2/3 of 1.25 (1 and 1/4) cups of water is .8375 cups; a cup is 16 tbsp or 48 tsp.  Three quarters of cup plus 1 tablespoon is 13/16 – .8125.  Three quarters of cup plus 1 tablespoon plus 1 tsp is 40/48 – .8333.

The most precise way to scale is by weight. As almost all home recipes list ingredients by volume, working by weight means finding conversion factors. Conversion factors are not always easy to find, and sources may disgree or only apply to some varieties of an ingredient, or to a brand of a commodity.

Flour, water, salt and yeast must be weighed carefully. Weighing flour and water involves using a bowl or measuring cup, and weighing the measuring vessel empty. A scale that goes to 1 gram is precise enough for flour. The volume measurements of salt and yeast for small loaves are fractions of a teaspoon.  I use a scale that goes to 0.1 grams.

Seeds and herbs should be scaled, but don’t have to be measured down to the gram. Oils, sugar and and sweet fluids should be scaled but don’t have to be measured to the gram. It is worth being aware of water in honey, maple syrop, molasses, eggs and different kinds of milk.

I don’t trust recipes that call for 2 tsp of yeast for a medium loaf to work in this machine.  I bake for low sodium. My tables scale at 50% salt, with yeast adjusted for salt. I also adjust yeast for this machine in two ways.

French Bread Cycle

Panasonic’s French Bread.  A 3 cup recipe makes an extra large loaf by volume. The French Bread cycle has a long initial rest, a short mixing phase, a long rise and 10% longer baking time. Bakers shape lean, wet white dough into batards and baguettes which hold up and slice better. I have scaled to 2/3 and 1/2 of 3 cups (2 cups and 1.5 cups of flour). The 1.5 cup version produces a loaf that is as “tall” and “wide” as bakery French Bread but 19 cm “long” – a short blunt batard:

 "Medium" Loaf"Medium" Loaf @ 67%@ 50%
IngredientVolumeWeight g.B%
White flour3 cups417 100278209
TFW417100278209
Butter1 tbsp.67 tbsp = 2 tsp.5 tbsp
Salt (recipe)1.5 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp4.312.82.2
Yeast R1 tsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp1.4.31.7
Water1.3125 (1 + 5/16) cups31074207155

Basic Cycle

Beth Hensperger’s Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (p. 200) “Chuck Williams Country French”. 67% of a medium recipe works – this is a rustic French bread – on basic bake cycle. The dough is may have to be watched and centered to get a symetrical loaf

 MediumMedium*
*50% Sodium
Medium*
*50% Sodium
Medium*
*50% Sodium
@ 75%@ 2/3
IngredientBLBMCVolumeWeightB%
White Flour2.25 cups313 g75235 g.210 g.
Whole Wheat.75 cups104 g2578 g.70 g.
TFW417 g100
Salt1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g13.2 g.2.9 g.
Instant Yeast1.75 (1 3/4) tsp<.4375 (7/16) tsp
1.2 g.;
1.1 g. works
.3.9 g.7 g.
Water1 + 3/16 cups
(1 cup + 3 tbsp)
1.25 cup
28071210 g.193 g.

Pembina Bread is based on BLBMC Country French and BLBMC Dakota Bread:

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf @ 75%
Volume
Weight g.B %
Whole Wheat.625 cups
.5 cups
872165
White Flour2.25 cups31375235
Bulgur.125 cups
.25 cups
20515
TFW420100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.313.2
Sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups3 tbsp
Pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups3 tbsp
Sesame seeds1.5 tsp1.125 tsp
Poppy seeds2 tsp1.5 tsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *7/16 tsp
2 tsp
1.2 g..3.9
Canola Oil2 tbsp
1.5 tbsp.
Honey2 tbsp21 g.
{5 g. water}
15 g.
(1.5 tbsp)
Water1.25 cups295
300 g.
225
Total fluids305 g.73

Whole Wheat Cycle

Panasonic’s 100% Whole Wheat Bread.  Small loaf at 75% of medium, with slightly higher hydration works in the machine on whole wheat bake cycle; medium loaf setting.

 Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread, a variant of BLBMC Flax Seed (p. 118).  Getting this recipe to work involved figuring out the difference between using milk vs water and dry milk (powder) and using honey. It also helped to tune this formula, which makes changes to the BLBMC source:

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafScaled @ 75%
BLBMC Volume
50% salt &
Panasonic
Weight
[Fluid]
B%
Whole Wheat2 cups
1 cup
278 61209
White Flour1 cup
2 cups
13931104
Flax mealx2 tbsp12039
Rolled Oatsx.25 cup250619
T. Flours/strong>454100
Flax Seed3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Poppy Seedx1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Skim Milk Powder
if Water
.25 cups
Salt 1 tsp.5 tsp
2.8.622.1
Gluten 1 tbsp0
Instant Yeast **2 tsp.625 tsp
(>25%)
1.81.3
Olive Oil3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp60
[12]
345 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.3 cup
(1 + 1/3)
(325 ml)
320 g
[290]
240 g.
if 1% Milk337 g
[285]
if Water1.125 cups
Fluid Weight30267

Cornell Bread, a BLBMC recipe (p. 161).  The  BLBMC calls for one large egg for the medium loaf (and for the large loaf, for that matter). I can adjust water down – which is what I try to do:

 Medium Loaf
Volume

Weight
Fluid
@ 75%
@ 2/3
B %
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.15614048
White Flour1.125 cups156 g.11710536
Soy flour.33 cups40 g.30 g.27 g.
Wheat germ 1.5 tbsp6.5 g.4.9 g.
Milk Powder.25 cups25 g.19 g.17 g.
Flour Total437100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.2.9 g.
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.5 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *1.25 tsp
2.5 tsp
3.5 g.2.6 g.2.3 g.
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Egg
Large
157 g.36 g. 11
Honey2 tbsp40 g.8 g.1.5 tbsp
(6 g. water)
1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Water1.125 cups281205180
Fluids32572

Buttermilk Whole Wheat Bread, a BLBMC recipe (p. 108), is a 50% whole wheat loaf with buttermilk.

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf @ 75%
BLBMCVolumeWeight FluidB%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20950157
White Flour1.5 cups20950157
TFW418100314
Salt *1.5 tsp.75 tsp
50%
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.33 tbsp
Instant Yeast *2 tsp.5 tsp
(* 50% x 50%)
1.4.331.1
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g13 g.1.5 tbsp
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.250 g. 210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid263 g.63

2018 Rides

This was 2018:

DateMe + WhoBikeKm.Trip
2283.62018 Year to Date
18-12-30MikeFX38.1Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Atkins. Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose return by Goose to Old Island and E&N EVR. Sunny at first, increasing cloud. 8 C
18-12-25MikeFX35.9Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Tulista Park (Sidney); return. Cloudy 7C
18-12-22MikeFX28.9Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N. Cloud. 8 C
18-12-15MikeFX40.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge. Cloudy, Windy. Mike had flat
18-12-08FX15.4Atkins Rest Stop, Goose, Atkins, Station, Jacklin, Westhills Trail, Goose back to start. Cloudy, 7 C
18-12-06MikeFX28.3Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Sunny, 5 C
18-12-02MikeFX29.4Bridge, E&N EVR + Goose to Wale Road, return by Goose. Cloud, some sun. 8 C and sea breeze.
18-11-25MikeFX40.7Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island; E&N EVR to Bridge
18-11-12FX52.9Bridge, Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Stelly's X, E. Saanich, Central Saanich, Mt Newton X, Lochside
18-11-10FX29.5Bridge, Goose to Wale Road, return by E&N EVR. Cool clear day. 9 C and sea breeze. I needed a layer of light fleece and leg covering. The trip from the Bridge to Old Island Highway is about 1.1 Km less along E&N EVR than along the Goose.
18-11-08MikeFX28.2Beacon Hill, Oak Bay, Uplands, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge. Sunny, 10 degrees. Still warm enough for shorts and light shell.
18-11-04MikeFX47.4Sunny autumn day. Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, Interurban to Quayle, crossed West Saanich on Beaver Lake Rd., lakeside trail to Brookleigh, crossed Pat Bay Highway on Sayward, connected to Cordova Bay Rd and Lochside trail at Mattick's.
16-10-22FX28.9Foggy day in James Bay, parts of Oak Bay. Sunny in Saanich. Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside
18-10-21MikeFX48.3Lochside School (Royal Oak), Lochside, Sidney, Airport Trail, return. Sunny 15 degrees, still weather for shorts.
18-10-18MikeFX35.5Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans'; Return
18-10-15FX28.9Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Bridge
18-10-06FX40.5Bridge, Goose to Sooke Road, back by E&N EVR from Old Island Highway. Sunny, cool.
18-09-29MikeFX39.5Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic., San Juan, Goose, E&N EVR from Old Island Highway to Bridge
18-09-26Mike, SteveFX25.0Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose
18-09-23MikeFX40.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, InterUrban, Quail, Beaver Lake Road, Elk Lake Road, Royal Oak, Lochside.
18-09-16FX36.3Bridge, Goose, InterUrban to Camosun; Camosum and VI Tech, Markham, W. Saanich, Royal Oak to Lochside; N to Cordova Bay (Mattick's), back to Bridge; Rainy day, sunny breaks in PM and wind.
18-08-25MikeFX36.8From Lochside School; Lochside to Sidney. Cool, steady light showers
18-08-19FX40.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside, Goose to Old Island, E & N VRB
18-08-18MikeFX46.8From Royal Oak (Lochside School) Lochside to Sidney, Flight Path (Airport) Loop, return. Sunny, moderate temperature, good breeze
18-08-12MikeFX56.2Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace and Amity to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 18 C. South wind.
18-08-11MikeFX24.2Bridge, E&N EVR to Old Island, Goose back downtown; caught in a shower for 19 km.
18-08-06MikeFX40.3Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic, San Juan Parkway, Lochside to Swing Bridge, Goose to Old Island; E & N Esquimault to the Bridge; sunny.
18-08-04MikeFX49.0Lochside from McKenzie (Don Mann) to Tsehum Harbour, Sidney with Hunt Valley. Sunny, moderate temperature and wind
18-07-29FX61.7Bridge, Lochside to Sidney, part of Flight Path, back by Lochside. Sunny, hot.
18-07-28MikeFX35.8Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Veterans, back the same way
18-07-14MikeFX37.6From Don Mann; Lochside to SwingBridge, Goose, Interurban, Quayle, Beaver Lake, Park trail, Oldfield, E. Saanich, Mount Newton X, Lochside
18-07-07MikeFX42.2From Don Mann; Lochside to Tulista, Sidney and back
18-07-02FX52.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Sayward/Welch/Hunt/Martindale to Ocean View (Michells) , back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Cloudy at first; then sunny but still cool.
18-07-01MikeFX32.3Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford, Goldstream, Wale, Goose. Cool, windy
18-06-24FX52.6Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 20 C. Brisk south wind.
18-06-23MikeFX22.4Bridge, E&N EVR , Goose back in.
18-06-16Mike (part)FX54.2Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Island View (Michell's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, sunny, 20 degrees. Almost hot.
18-05-26FX64.2Bridge. Goose, Interurban, Wallace, Saanichton, Mt Newton X, Lochside, San Juan, UVic, Uplands, Oak Bay, Beacon Hill
18-05-21MikeFX24.7Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose back in; Victoria Day - cloudy, with parade on Douglas and F-18 flyover.
18-05-19Mike (part)FX78.9Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to SwingBridge, Lochside to Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lakes trail, Oldfield, East Saanich, part of airport loop, Sidney, Lochside; Cloudy day, a bit cool; moderate to brisk E, ESE and SE winds
18-05-16FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Musgrave, Uplands, UVic, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Mattick's Farm); return by Lochside, Goose, Bridge. Clear, temperate evening
18-05-13FX64.2Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Interurban, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside and Goose back. Sunny. 24 C. UV 7. Shorts, short sleeves. Sunscreen weather. Asphalt replaced on Lochside south of Claremont. E&N now paved past Esquimault lands to shopping center
18-05-06FX57.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Wallace to Lochside, Lochside to Cy Hampson; Lochside and Goose back. Sunny most of the day. 20 C.
18-04-29FX41.5Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose. cloudy, cool
18-04-22FX58.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Ocean View (Michells), back by Lochside and downtown, ended by going down Simcoe to Montreal and back up Niagara. Sunny but still cool.
18-04-15FX61.3Bridge, Lochside, Royal Oak, Elk Lake Road, Lake trail, Oldfield, Mt Stelly X, E. Saanich, Wallace, Lochside. Government, Dallas. Should be end of the Niagara Street pipe pull. Cloudy, cool.
18-04-07FX52.4Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Cloudy, 13 C. . Brisk south wind. Shorts but a bit chilly at times.
18-04-02FX45.8New (Blue) Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose, E&N Langford to Jacklin, Jenkins, Glen Lake Road and Sooke Road to Luxton, turn and return on Goose. Sunny, windy. First two crossings, in the saddle, of new Johnson Street Bridge. First crossing of new bridge over McKenzie on the Goose.
18-03-31FX30.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Stroll on new bridge (Blue Bridge replaced) on pedestrian access day/official opening; trip to GVPL Central, home by Beacon Hill and Niagara around the pipe project.
18-03-25FX51.1Blue Bridge, E&N EVR, Goose to Wale Road, Goose to Swing Bridge; Lochside to Royal Oak; return Lochside and San Juan to U Vic, Uplands, Musgrave, Monterey, Richmond, May, Beacon Hill Park. Some sunny; some overcast; 10 C, windy.
18-03-11FX52.6Blue Bridge, Goose, Interurban to Saanichton, Mt. Newton X Road to Lochside; Lochside and Goose back . Sunny, 10 C. when I started, warmed to 13. Brisk north wind. Almost warm enough for shorts.
18-03-04FX41.6Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Uplands, U Vic Ring, Gordon Head, San Juan, Lochside to Cordova Bay (Matticks), Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge. Sunny, cloud moved in, moment of drizzle. Windy. 8 degrees C.
18-02-25FX29.4Beacon Hill, Fairfield, Oak Bay, Upland, U Vic, Gordon Head, San Juan. Return by Lochside, Goose, Blue Bridge.
18-02-12FX32.5Beacon Hill, May, Moss. Thurlow, Richmond, Richardson, St. Ann/Musgrave, Upper Terrace, Cedar Hill X Road, San Juan, Lochside. Sunny, clear, 5 degrees C. Wind.
18-02-10FX32.1Blue Bridge, Goose-Lochside to Cordova Bay Road (Mattick's). Sunny. 6 C. Light wind. Almost nice, but the wind had a bite. A few dozen bikes out. Some recreational riders bundle up. Some roadies in hi-tec kit. The traffic meter at Hope Point was at 620 at 2:30. New things - a fence on the parking lot at the Red Lion. Construction on Lochside near Claremont. Stop sign for bikes at Saanich Road.
18-01-010Happy New Year

More Bread Machine Loaves

These loaves are mainly whole grain and multigrain. Multigrain means a blend of white flour, whole wheat flour and other grain flour, flakes or groats of buckwheat, oat and other grains (usually not rye flour). These loaves work differently depending on blend, hydration, yeast and machine cycle. I think multigrain loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

I use a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine, and I adapt recipes from recipe books, mainly from the Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”).   My salt measurement and yeast measurement are for 50% sodium.  The yeast measurement is customized for the SD-YD 250;  it may work in a machine with similiar features and cycle but may not work in other machines. I use Bakers’ percentage (B%) and deal with flour, water, salt and yeast by weight.

First, a white bread – French Bread, as written the Panasonic Manual. French bread bake cycle – one size recipe; 3 cups of flour (medium loaf) that comes out in a block that fills the extra-large pan.  It can be scaled down. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text:

 "Medium" Loaf"Medium" Loaf @ 67%@ 50%
IngredientVolumeWeight g.B%
White flour3 cups417 100278209
TFW417100278209
Butter1 tbsp.67 tbsp = 2 tsp.5 tbsp
Salt (recipe)1.5 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp4.312.82.2
Yeast R1 tsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp1.4.31.7
Water1.3125 (1 + 5/16) cups31074207155

My sister makes a Flax Seed Whole Wheat bread with 2.5 cups of whole wheat flour, 1 cup of white flour, oatmeal, sunflower, flax and poppy seeds, flax meal, and 1.75 cups milk.  This works in her machine, producing a loaf with a fairly open crumb. I wanted a medium recipe with 3 cups of flour that could scale for smaller loaves. The BLBMC (p. 118) formula uses 1 cup whole wheat flour, 2 cups of bread flour.  So does a formula on the web Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread. I used the latter version, with a shift to more whole wheat flour; and added the ingredients of my sister’s recipe.

The BLBMC used 1 cup whole wheat and 1.125 (1 + 1/8) cups water. The shift to more whole wheat and the addition of rolled oat and flax meal requires a small amount of water for hydration, between one and two tablespoons more of water. One tablespoon is 1/16 of a cup. The water can be added as water, when using milk powder.

This dough finds a couple of teaspoons of water in 3 tablespoons of honey. Switching to fluid milk adds quality – but requires some attention.

Unpasteurized milk can lead to surprizes. Some bakers think milk,  real or reconstituted, should be scalded to denature proteins. I don’t spend time and energy on this.

The medium loaf was a little lopsided. My attempts to bake smaller loaves based on this recipe have been educational. When this works, it has a firm crust and a dense crumb that holds up for firm sandwich slices. I

The formula, by volume or weight and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in bold text and alternatives in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.  I thought it was better with milk.

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafScaled @ 75%
BLBMC Volume
50% salt &
Panasonic
Weight
[Fluid]
B%
Whole Wheat2 cups
1 cup
278 61209
White Flour1 cup
2 cups
13931104
Flax mealx2 tbsp12039
Rolled Oatsx.25 cup250619
T. Flours/strong>454100
Flax Seed3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Poppy Seedx1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Skim Milk Powder
if Water
.25 cups
Salt 1 tsp.5 tsp
2.8.622.1
Gluten 1 tbsp0
Instant Yeast **2 tsp.625 tsp
(>25%)
1.81.3
Olive Oil3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp60
[12]
345 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.3 cup
(1 + 1/3)
(325 ml)
320 g
[290]
240 g.
if 1% Milk337 g
[285]
if Water1.125 cups
Fluid Weight30267

I make a loaf I call Pembina Bread: a white flour loaf with seeds, based in BLBMC Dakota Bread (p. 119). Named for Pembina, North Dakota, important to Winnipegers. The gateway to Fargo and Grand Forks; the site of KCND, the first American TV network affiliate transmitter that reached antennas in Winnipeg (later purchased by Canadian owners and moved north of the border as CKND). The formula, by volume and weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changes in italic text. 

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf @ 75%
Volume
Weight g.B %
Whole Wheat.625 cups
.5 cups
872165
White Flour2.25 cups31375235
Bulgur.125 cups
.25 cups
20515
TFW420100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.313.2
Sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups3 tbsp
Pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups3 tbsp
Sesame seeds1.5 tsp1.125 tsp
Poppy seeds2 tsp1.5 tsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *7/16 tsp
2 tsp
1.2 g..3.9
Canola Oil2 tbsp
1.5 tbsp.
Honey2 tbsp21 g.
{5 g. water}
15 g.
(1.5 tbsp)
Water1.25 cups295
300 g.
225
Total fluids305 g.73

Cornell Bread is a BLBMC recipe (p. 161), based on Cornell bread developed by Clive McCay of Cornell University first published in 1955 in a short book called The Cornell Bread Book. The BLBMC bread machine version has been emulated and published on the Web e.g. here. It uses an egg, milk powder, and soy flour for protein, and wheat germ for fiber. 

Dr. McCay is reported to have believe that this bread, with butter, was a sufficient healthy and nutrious diet. A nearly vegetarian scientific health food, 30 years before the vegetarian prescriptions of Diet for a Small Planet. Dr. McCay, a scientist in animal nutrition, experimented on mice to prove that bread made with bleached white flour was not as healthy as bread made with unbleached flour.  The 1980 edition of the Cornell Bread Book is still available.  The recipe is presented in recipes  and articles on prepper and counterculture sites.  The recipe  was developed during the Great Depression.  Food security was recognized as an issue in America more clearly then than now. Eleanor Roosevelt’s Kitchen, a 2010 article in the New Yorker, looked back at the campaigns by home economists at Cornell to  promote economical recipes for American kitchens in hard times.  Americans were persuaded that hard times ended by 1945, and food writers began to treat the austerity diet  in recipes for Bulldog Gravy  or like Depression Cake in M.F.K. Fisher‘s How to Cook a Wolf as as a memory

A brown bread. Slightly sweet, and rich. The white flour gives it some lift. This loaf taught me a lesson about hydraton. My first attempt was the medium loaf. I missed a digit in entering the water in the calculator. I used 1.25 cups x 236 (=295 g). The correct amount was 1.125 cups x 236 (=266 g). One eight of a cup. The dough was sloppy. I shook some white flour in (not measured, 3 or 3 tbsp) with about 10 minute of mixing time left to get a dough that held up. The loaf had an open crumb and cratered. My attempt to scale formulas down to make smaller loaves is a story in itself. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  Whole wheat cycle.

 Medium Loaf
Volume

Weight
Fluid
@ 75%
@ 2/3
B %
Whole Wheat1.5 cups209 g.15614048
White Flour1.125 cups156 g.11710536
Soy flour.33 cups40 g.30 g.27 g.
Wheat germ 1.5 tbsp6.5 g.4.9 g.
Milk Powder.25 cups25 g.19 g.17 g.
Flour Total437100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.2.9 g.
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.5 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *1.25 tsp
2.5 tsp
3.5 g.2.6 g.2.3 g.
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Egg
Large
157 g.36 g. 11
Honey2 tbsp40 g.8 g.1.5 tbsp
(6 g. water)
1.3 tbsp or
1 tbsp + 1 tsp
Water1.125 cups281205180
Fluids32572

Sunflower Oatmeal Bread is the BLBMC (p. 323), bread machine adaptation of Celeste’s Sunflower and Oatmeal Bread in Beth Hensperger’s 1988 Bread. Low sodium; yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled, with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium Loaf@ 2/3@ 80 %
Volume
WeightB%Weight
Whole Wheat.5 cups79 g.53 g.63 g.
White Flour2.5 cups348 g.233 g.278 g.
Oatmeal.5 cups
50 g33 g.
(1/3 cup)
40 g.
TFW477100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.3 g.12.9 g.3.4 g
sunflower seeds
raw
.5 cups1/3 cup.4 cup
Butter1.5 tbsp1 tbsp.1.2 tbsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *.375
.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.1 g..7 g.9 g
Molasses1 tbsp.2 tsp.2.5 tsp.
Honey2 tbsp.21 g.
{5 g. water}
14 g. {3.25 g. water}
(1.34 tbsp)
1 tbsp + 1 tsp.
1.5 tbsp
Egg, Large157 g.
{36 g.}
57 g. {36 g. water}57 g. {36 g. water}
Buttermilk.625 cups150 g.
{148 g.}
100 g. {99 g. water}
(.42 cups)
120 g.
Water.5 cups112 g.74 g.90 g.
Fluid %30165265

Buttermilk Whole Wheat BLBMC p. 108. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup; salt reduction, and yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. Estimating the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup helped to tune the overall hydration. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf @ 75%
BLBMCVolumeWeight FluidB%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20950157
White Flour1.5 cups20950157
TFW418100314
Salt *1.5 tsp.75 tsp
50%
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.33 tbsp
Instant Yeast *2 tsp.5 tsp
(* 50% x 50%)
1.4.331.1
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g13 g.1.5 tbsp
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.250 g. 210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid263 g.63

Zarathustra’s Bread is BLBMC (p. 126) “Tecate Ranch Whole Wheat”. BLBMC named it for a spa in Baja California that serve this bread, developed by a chef at spa in San Diego which used New Age Zoroastrianism as one its themes. Exotic naming is a staple of Counter-culture marketing to consumers with a taste for the bohemian in their lives. For a more SF reading of the name, consider watching 2001: a Space Odessey, listening to the fanfare of Thus Spake Zarathustra. Imagine the loaf as the monolith. Freshly baked whole wheat is tasty. But 100% loaves can dry out or go stale fast.

100 % whole wheat, honey, molasses and poppy seeds. Low sodium; yeast adjustments for salt and for Panasonic. The formula, by volume or weight, scaled, with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source recipe amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

IngredientMedium Loaf
Volume
Medium
Weight
B %@ 75%
Whole Wheat3.25 cups452339
Wheat Germ
Wheat Bran
.25 cup
.33 cup
3 tbsp
TFW100
Gluten2.5 tbsp
Salt @ 50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.33.2 g.
Yeast R1 tsp
Poppy Seeds1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Inst. Yeast *.75 tsp
1 tbsp
2.11.6 g.
Honey.125 cups
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Molasses.125 cups;
(2 tbsp)
1.5 tbsp
Water1.33300 g.
314 g.
225 g.
236 g.
(1 cup)

Recipe Summaries

These are the bread machine recipes I used working out my approach to yeast and low sodium in  baking in a Panasonic SD-YD250 for medium (1.5 lb.) loaves June, July and August, 2018. The test table [T] at the end of this post notes my test of the recipes at the time.  In that final table I state the flour, fluid, salt and yeast used in one particular trial – which often failed. Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (“BLBMC”) recipes did not work as published.  

I present several recipes in tables with volume, weight, baker percentage, and ingredients, scaled for smaller loaves.  Others are summaries of the source for a medium loaf. Some tables and lists are based on BLBMC  formulas. I mark the parts of the source formula that I change, and I insert changes . White flour means bread flour; where a recipe said bread flour; I used Canadian All-Purpose.

My tables and summaries all reduce salt to  50% salt, and adjust yeast (1) for salt and (2) for this machine and other Panasonic machine

Basic White Loaf is in the Panasonic Manual or online. Basic bake cycle. Panasonic presents this recipe in M, L, XL in the manual, as a milk bread (milk instead of water), and as a basic sandwich loaf. This recipe works at published for medium loaves

100% Whole Wheat is in the Panasonic Manual or online at 100 % Whole Wheat. Bake Whole wheat cycle. This recipe works at published.

Chuck Williams’s Country French is from BLBMC (p. 200).  Beth Hensperger adapted a recipe from her 2002 bread book in Williams-Sonoma collection. It was a recipe for La Cloche device; in the style of Pain de campagne, with whole wheat (not rye) flour.  A lean French bread: 25% whole wheat, 75% white flour, water, salt, yeast; without milk, butter or sugar.  BLBMC says Basic or French bread cycle.  Those cycles use a more intensive mix, and I back off on yeast and water.  The loaf has a firm crust and a reaonably open crumb. Low salt, B% and scaled. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text

 MediumMedium*
*50% Sodium
Medium*
*50% Sodium
Medium*
*50% Sodium
@ 75%@ 2/3
IngredientBLBMCVolumeWeightB%
White Flour2.25 cups313 g75235 g.210 g.
Whole Wheat.75 cups104 g2578 g.70 g.
TFW417 g100
Salt1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g13.2 g.2.9 g.
Instant Yeast1.75 (1 3/4) tsp<.4375 (7/16) tsp
1.2 g.;
1.1 g. works
.3.9 g.7 g.
Water1 + 3/16 cups
(1 cup + 3 tbsp)
1.25 cup
28071210 g.193 g.

Pembina Bread is adapted from BLBMC (p. 119) or Beth Hensperger blog: Dakota Bread. The source recipe says basic bake cycle, and uses .5 cup of whole wheat for a medium loaf.  Chuck Williams Country French, above, use .75 cups of whole wheat.  The bulger takes up a little water, which changes the hydration.  I use less bulgur than the BLBMC source, and  whole wheat bake cycle. Low salt, B% and scaled. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf @ 75%
Volume
Weight g.B %
Whole Wheat.625 cups
.5 cups
872165
White Flour2.25 cups31375235
Bulgur.125 cups
.25 cups
20515
TFW420100
Salt @50%.75 tsp
1.5 tsp
4.313.2
Sunflower seeds
raw
.25 cups3 tbsp
Pumpkin seeds
raw, chopped
.25 cups3 tbsp
Sesame seeds1.5 tsp1.125 tsp
Poppy seeds2 tsp1.5 tsp
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
2 tbsp
Inst. Yeast *7/16 tsp
2 tsp
1.2 g..3.9
Canola Oil2 tbsp
1.5 tbsp.
Honey2 tbsp21 g.
{5 g. water}
15 g.
(1.5 tbsp)
Water1.25 cups295
300 g.
225
Total fluids305 g.73

Flax Seed Whole Wheat Bread is an adaptation of a BLBMC recipe (p. 118), with changes discussed in my post on Other Recipes, and changes for low sodium. I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 Medium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafMedium LoafScaled @ 75%
BLBMC Volume
50% salt &
Panasonic
Weight
[Fluid]
B%
Whole Wheat2 cups
1 cup
278 61209
White Flour1 cup
2 cups
13931104
Flax mealx2 tbsp12039
Rolled Oatsx.25 cup250619
T. Flours/strong>454100
Flax Seed3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Poppy Seedx1 tbsp2.25 tsp
Skim Milk Powder
if Water
.25 cups
Salt 1 tsp.5 tsp
2.8.622.1
Gluten 1 tbsp0
Instant Yeast **2 tsp.625 tsp
(>25%)
1.81.3
Olive Oil3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Honey3 tbsp60
[12]
345 g. or
2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Skim Milk1.3 cup
(1 + 1/3)
(325 ml)
320 g
[290]
240 g.
if 1% Milk337 g
[285]
if Water1.125 cups
Fluid Weight30267

Three Seed Whole Wheat Bread is my adapatation of the BLBMC recipe (p. 116). It is a low sodium recipe.  When I depart from the recipe, I give the BLBMC recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. I prefer whole wheat cycle:

 Medium Loaf
Volume
Weight @ 75%B %
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20915750
White Flour1.5 cups20915750
TFW418314100
Dry Skim Milk3 tbsp2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Sunflower Seed1/3 cup2.25 tbsp i.e.
2 tbsp + .75 tsp.
Sesame Seed
2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Poppy Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Sunflower Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Salt @50%.5 tsp
1 tsp
2.9 g2.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1 tbsp
Instant Yeast *.5 tsp
2 tsp
1.41.1.33
Water1 + 3/16 cups
1.25 cups
280 g
295 g
210 g.70

Scandinavian Light Rye is based on BLBMC (p. 134).  In a table – low salt, B%. When I depart from the recipe, I give the recipe amount in strikeout text and my changed value in italic text.  Any additions are italic. It works on basic bake cycle, medium loaf setting.

 MediumMedium LoafMediumMed.Small @ 75%
BLBMC50% salt;
Panasonic
WeightB%
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups13534101
TFW396100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt *1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten0
Instant Yeast *2.5 tsp.625 tsp1.8 g.1.3 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g

Buttermilk Whole Wheat Bread is from BLBMC (p. 108). I didn’t quite get this during the trials in the summer of 2018. Medium-light whole wheat. 50% Whole Wheat with buttermilk and maple syrup as the sweetener. I did not feel sure about this, but it works with my salt reduction and my yeast adjustment for salt and for Panasonic. I worked out the hydration of buttermilk and maple syrup and overall hydration. That may be a useful number to check other 50-50 loaves for hydration and yeast. I think multigrain 50-50 loaves do better on whole wheat cycle.

The formula, by volume or weight, scaled and with B% for reference. When I depart from the source recipe, the source amount is in strikeout text and the changed or added ingredient in italic text.  On whole wheat cycle.

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf Medium Loaf @ 75%
BLBMCVolumeWeight FluidB%
Whole Wheat1.5 cups20950157
White Flour1.5 cups20950157
TFW418100314
Salt *1.5 tsp.75 tsp
50%
4.3 g3.2 g
Gluten
per BLBMC
0
1.33 tbsp
Instant Yeast *2 tsp.5 tsp
(* 50% x 50%)
1.4.331.1
Canola Oil2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Maple Syrup2 tbsp40 g13 g.1.5 tbsp
Buttermilk1.125 cups275 g.250 g. 210 g.
(.85 cups)
Fluid263 g.63

White Whole Wheat is mentioned in the test table at the end, trials 7, 8, 10, 11.  The source recipe from BLBMC (p. 127) “White Whole Wheat Flour Bread”. Also see variation with 3 cups of flour,  on basic bake “white bread” cycle. I never had White Whole Wheat flour. Home bakers report, in King Arthur comments, that the uses of this flour include using it in place of white flour for pancakes.

I substituted”Whole Wheat Bread Flour”, which was higher in protein (gluten) than the flour in the recipe. It was a lesson. I stopped looking for a flour that can’t be obtained in this part of Canada:

White whole-wheat flour is … made with hard white spring or winter wheat — the bran, germ, and endosperm are all ground to result in another 100 percent whole-wheat flour. … because it’s made with hard white wheat instead of hard red wheat, like whole-wheat flour, it has a paler color and its taste is milder. It’s still nuttier than all-purpose flour because it includes the fibrous bran and germ of the wheat, but it’s a more approachable whole-wheat flour, particularly for those who don’t enjoy the hearty taste of whole-wheat flour.
It can be used interchangeably with whole-wheat flour in any recipe

Source

The general conditions for the loaves in my test program:

  • Flour is noted in cups with measurement by weight most of the time;
  • Wheat flour, by Rogers, a Canadian mill:
    • All-Purpose flour (i.e. bread flour); 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams;
    • Bread Flour for White Bread;
    • Whole Wheat flour; 1 cup = 4.9 oz = 139 grams;
    • Whole Wheat Bread Flour (a blend of Whole Wheat and white flour, and added gluten);
  • Rye Flour. In one trial, Nunnweiler Organic Dark (I had a bag in the fridge). Rogers Dark Rye Flour;
  • Yeast in tsp; in some trials in grams; 1 tsp = 2.8 g. Trials 1-6 Fleishmann’s Quick-Rise; others SAF Red Instant dry;
  • Salt in grams (For table salt 1 tsp = 5.7 grams); the % of the salt in the published recipe.

The Cm column is a rough measurement or estimate of the height of the loaf with some notations:

  • ^ gassed and rose to top of the pan or ballooned
  • / lopsided or asymmetric;
  • * a manual step to deflate the dough on that trial.
T.RecipeFlour
CycleWater*
cups
Gluten
tsp
Yeast
tsp or g.
Salt g.Cm
1Country French2.25 Bread
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.254.5 [51%]^
2Country French2.25 AP
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.254.5 [51%}11
3Dakota2.25 Bread
.5 whole wheat
1.2521.1257.5 [83%] ^
4Dakota2.25 AP
.5 whole wheat
1.2511 [50%]9 [100%]10*
5Basic White3 AP1.2501 [100%]10.5 [116%]10
6Country French2.25 AP
.75 whole wheat
1.25.251.259.28 [105%]10*
7White Whole3.25 wWhB1.2511.1259.10 [101%]14*
8White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.8759.15 [102%] 14
9Whole Wheat3 whole wheatWW1.250.5 [50%]6.9 [76%]10
10White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.55.25 [58%]14
11White Whole3.25 wWhB1.250.3754.5 [50%]14
123 Seed3 wWhB1.250.53.1 [50%]11
133 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.250.5 3.0 [50%]8
143 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.251.5.6253.0 [50%]12
153 Seed1.5 whole wheat
1.5 AP
1.251.125.53.0 [50%]10
16Country French2.25 AP
.75 whole wheat
1.25.375.54.5 [50%]13
17FS Whole Wh2 AP
1 whole wheat
1.125.5.5 3.0 [50%]12.5
18FS Whole Wh9.75 oz. AP
4.875 oz. whole wheat
1.125.51.23 g.3.05 [51%]11.5 /
19Buttermilk WhWh7.375 oz. AP
7.375 oz whole wheat
B1.125
* Buttermilk
1.5.5 tsp 4 [44%]11 //
20Buttermilk WhWh7.3 oz. AP
7.3 oz. whole wheat
B1.25
* Buttermilk
1.0 tsp1.52 g. 4.1 [45%]11
21Irish Brown9.7 oz. whole wheat
4.875 oz. AP
1.251.5 tsp1.49 g. 4.45 [45%]13 /
22Whole Wheat14.6 oz. whole wheatWW1.25.75 tsp1.42 g. 4.52 [50%]11
23Sc Light Rye9.0 oz AP
1.125 cups rye
1.1251.5 tsp1.42 g4.51 [50%]11 /
24Bohemian Black8.5 oz. AP
1 cup dark rye
.25 cups wheat germ
B1.125 +
3 tbsp melted butter,
I tbsp espresso drip
1.5 tsp1.51 g.4.52 [50%]9 /
25Buttermilk WhWh207 g. AP
207 g. whole wheat
WW1.25
*buttermilk
1.5 tsp1.40 g.4.50 [50%]

Bread Machine Artisan Bread?

The Challenge

A bread machine cannot produce the shapes associated with rustic, country hearth, or “artisan” bread.  These loaves are shaped as round boules or oval batards (or torpedos), and baked on a deck, without a pan. A bread machine bakes a loaf in a pan. Artisan loaves tend to have firm or even crisp/crunchy crusts. There is no direct temperature control or temperature reading on a bread machine.  A bread machine create enough heat to bake a dark crust but cannot reach the temperature that bakes crunchy crusts.

A bread machine can become a mixer (and a proofing box) on a dough cycle. This saves labour. But a bread machine doesn’t have the alternative functionality that mixers offer.

The bread machine makes dough on a cycle.  A dough cycle will have an initial rest or preheat phase many machines (e.g. my Panasonic SD-YD250 has it on all dough cycles except pizza dough). Every machine will reliably mix the ingredients at a slow speed and move up to higher speed to work the dough.  There is some control of time.  For instance to avoid the more intensive mixing – just stop it when it is mixed.  And a pause after slow mixing can be made (to autolyse before more intensive mixing, or to add something), until the end of the phase. A few machines have a pause function, controlled by a button.  Most machines have a power interrupt that restarts the machine at the point in the cycle it stopped after short power outage.  This allows a pause of several minutes by unplugging the machine. The machine must be plugged back in, within the time limit or it goes back to the start of the cycle.

There are no options to slow down the mixing or change the time – just stop when you want to stop mixing, and rest or work the the dough.

Some breads use a fermented “starter” to introduce yeast and bacteria (sourdough, mother, chef, levain) or to enhance flavour (sponge, biga, poolish, pre-ferment, pate fermentee). Adding a starter during mixing means lifting the lid and/or taking out the pan, and putting it in manually.

Dough cycles have a rest phase and a rise phase allowing the dough to ferment in machine, and stop.  The user has options after on when to remove the dough after mixing, and other options:

  • the end of mixing
  • the end of the rise
  • after the end of the cycle for added bulk fermentation time
  • put the dough in the fridge to slow down fermentation
  • knock it down, knead by hand;
  • additional fermentation – a second rise before shaping the loaf

The user ultimately shapes it, let it rise and puts it into the oven in pans, on a baking sheet or in or on a ceramic sheet or apparatus (e.g. pizza stone) at whatever temperature the user wants.

The Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook offers advice and several recipes/formulas at pages 196-297.  This is good advice but has to be adjusted for the machine.  For instance many machines can’t be paused

French Whole Wheat

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook p. 206 advise a dough cycle. I used {Whole Wheat} Dough cyle. BLBMC advises a knock down, additional fermentation/rise after the dough cycle.  These steps are superflous with a machine with a long rise phase and a knockdown in the rise phase.

The steps after the dough is out of the machine are shaping a torpedo loaf, final proof, scoring the loaf and baking at 400 F for 32-48 minutes:

  • 347 g. (2.5 cups) whole wheat flour
  • .5 cup spelt flour
  • {4.3 g. (.75 tsp)} salt [BLBMC 1.5 tsp]
  • {2.8 g. (1 tsp)} instant yeast [BLBMC 4 tsp]
  • 1 5/16 cups (1.25 + 1 tbsp) buttermilk
  • .5 cup water

The loaf looks like a loaf of rye bread – it has a dark crust.  The crust is soft, as might be expected with whole wheat.  It has a sticky crumb that leaves a residue on the bread knife, like an artisan OEM product sold in the local Thifty’s over the last two years before fall 2018.  The crumb is not as darkly coloured as 100%  whole wheat recipes which use dark brown sugar or molasses and oil – and not as dense.

Light Rye Bread

Introduction

I bake bread in a Panasonic SD-YD250 bread machine. Panasonic’s manual asserts rye flour leads to dense bread when used to replace other flour, and warns that mixing rye flour might  overload the motor.   This takes product warning too far. Authentic pumpernickel is outside the capabilities of bread machines. There are retail/craft/home formulas for a rustic style with rye flour, e.g.  King Arthur Classic Pumpernickel baked in an oven.  A bread machine can make a light rye.

Light rye breads are soft  breads made with wheat flour, with rye flour or rye meal for flavour and texture, or light rye flour. Also, there are (retail/craft/home) rustic rye and rye sourdough styles. Light rye bread may be made in pans, but also baked in a torpedo shape.

Rye bread has been baked with caraway seeds so often that consumers associate the flavour of caraway with the flavour of rye. Caraway is related to cumin, fennel, anise, carrots, celery and parsley. Some varieties are known as Persian cumin. It has been used as a cooking herb or spice since the time of the Roman Empire. It is a major spice in Central European cooking and in the nations beside the Baltic and was adopted in Germany, the Nordic countries and England. Cumin and caraway are the spice in Kamijnekaas – the spiced Dutch cheeses Leiden Kaas and spiced Gouda. Caraway is a strong flavouring, and may overwhelm other flavours in rye bread. Other flavouring agents: fennel and anise seeds, dried orange peel, orange zest and orange oil for flavour in varying amounts and combinations. There are dark or sour light rye styles (retail/craft/home/bread machine) with wheat flour, rye flour and cocoa or ground coffee for dark colour,vinegar or sour cream for acidity corn meal, oatmeal or sunflower seeds for texture.

Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook has at least 9 recipes for light rye breads (at pp. 133-143, 313) with 25% – 35% rye flour by weight. This is manageable.  The BLBMC recipes scale to smaller loaves. BLBMC suggests baking light rye bread on the basic bake cycle for most recipes. The BLBMC assumes that a whole wheat bake cycle involves a longer kneading time and a longer rise. This is not the case for the SD-YD250. The whole wheat cycle has a shorter kneading time and longer rise. The dough seems to relax in last minutes of mix/knead on basic or whole wheat but it holds up and rises either way. It produces a better result on whole wheat

Rye flour has less of the proteins that build gluten than wheat flour.  It has pentosans which absorb water early in mixing but release it after periods of intensive mixing. The dough seems dry and elastic – it holds it shape and is slow to relax. According to Daniel DiMuzio’s Bread Baking, An Arisan’s Perspective (p. 51), bakers with control of speed and time would use a short period of slow mixing for dough with significant amounts of rye flour, and little faster intensive mixing DiMuzio notes (p. 216) that dough for deli-style light rye (80% white/20% rye) would be hydrated at 68% and mixed slowly: in a stand mixer, 3 minutes slow to blend ingredients and 3 minutes on second speed. The way to match this would be a custom cycle in a bread machine with that feature. With my less fancy machine, I could turn off the machine after slow mix and a few minutes of knead/mix and let it rise and finish it on the counter and int the oven; or in the machine:

  • let it sit, knock it down once with a spatula, let it “bench” rise and
  • plug it in and set to bake “cake”.

Rogers Foods mills Dark Rye Flour is available locally, and priced as a staple instead of a luxury good.  Rogers does not directly publish a volume to mass conversion. The food facts label indicates 1 cup = 120 grams = 4.2 oz.  Food Facts for Dark Rye flours from other mills are consistent.  120 grams is in the range of published values, which is confusing and wide.  Online Conversion’s converter and Aqua-Calc converter dark rye flour said 1 cup of dark rye flour = 4.5 oz. = 128 g.   The rest of the range:

  • BLBMC; Reinhardt’s Bread Bakers Apprentice – no factor stated
  • The Bakery Network conversion chart – 1 cup “rye flour” = 4 oz. = 113.4
  • Aqua-Calc converter light rye flour (or medium rye flour) – 1 cup = 102 g = 3.6 oz.
  • The Traditional Oven’s  converter – 1 cup = 102 g. = 3.6 oz.  light rye?
  • King Arthur Flour’s Ingredient Conversion chart – 1 cup = 3.625 oz.  light rye?

I put the recipes in tables. Where I made a change, I leave the source recipe amount or ingredient in strikeout. The salt measurement is a normal low sodium adjustment  – reduce salt and yeast by equal proportions.  The yeast measurement is customized for the Panasonic SD-YD250;  it may work in a machine with similiar features and cycle but may not work in many other machines.

Bread with Caraway and Onions – a recipe in the Panasonic manual with almost no rye flour. It evokes rye bread with caraway seeds. Caraway seeds were used to make flavoured breads with white flour in Central European recipes.

[table “25” not found /]

Scandinavian Light Rye – a BLBMC recipe (p. 134).

 MediumMedium LoafMediumMed.Small @ 75%
BLBMC50% salt;
Panasonic
WeightB%
White Flour1.875 cups261 g.66196
Dark Rye Flour1.125 cups13534101
TFW396100
Brown Sugar2 tbsp1.5 tbsp
Caraway Seed1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Salt *1.5 tsp.75 tsp
4.3 g.3.2 g.
Gluten0
Instant Yeast *2.5 tsp.625 tsp1.8 g.1.3 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Water1.125 cups266 g.67200 g

Swedish Rye Bread – a BLBMC recipe (p. 136).

 Medium LoafMedium Loaf
Medium LoafMedium Loaf@ 75%
BLBMC50% Sodium
Panasonic
WeightB %
White Flour2 cups278 g.65209 g.
Dark Rye FlourMedium Rye1.25 cups150 g.35113 g.
TFW428 g.100
Fennel Seed2 tsp1.5 tsp
Dried Orange Peel1.5 tsp1 + 1/8 tsp
Salt1.25 tsp.625 tsp3.6 g.2.7 g.
Gluten
Instant Yeast
@ 50% salt *
2 tsp.5 tsp
1.4 g.1.1 g.
Oil1.5 tbsp1 + 1/8 tbsp =
1 tbsp + 3/8 tsp
Honey3 tbsp2.25 tbsp =
2 tbsp + 3/4 tsp
Water1.25 cups295 g.69221 g.

Steamed Rice

Steamed rice is rice cooked in water as opposed to being fried first (pilaf, biryani, some Mexican styles) or cooked as a risotto, paella, rice pudding, congee or other flavoured rice dish.  Rice absorbs water as it cooks.   Steaming is an absorption preparation.  Salt is optional. It does not play a part in the cooking process and is added for taste. Steamed rice can be cooked in a pot or cooking vessel, including a pressure cooker, over a heat source, or in rice cooker appliance. Multicooker appliances (e.g. Instant Pot) with a pressure cooker function or a rice cooker function can do steamed rice or other basic cooked rice

The slow cooker may do dishes the have some rice in a soup or stew. It does not do as well as other method with plain rice where the goal is fluffy grains.

Cooked rice can used in a dish, as an accompaniment to other dishes, fried or processed further, or added to other dishes e.g. Nasi Goreng is preparation of fried cooked long grain white rice.

The editors and authors of Cook’s Illustrated/America’s Test Kitchen have a theory or explanation for rinsing white rice. They published it a few times, including a concept 30 in The Science of Good Cooking (2012) with their summary of their “Test Kitchen Experiment”. Their aphorism is “Rinsing (Not Soaking) Makes Rice Fluffy).

CI/ATK publishes its own summaries of its test kitchen tests, but not the experimental parameters or data. They recommend considering the work of other cooks in other kitchens with other tools and techniques. But their tests are not scientific experiments that prove facts. CI/ATK concept 30 is that soaking rice is a waste of time for all rice, white or brown, regardless of kernel size but is useful for long grain white rice especially basmati and some medium grain rices, but not for short grain rice that is supposed to be creamy (for risotto) or sticky (for sushi and other Asian dishes). This is a useful generalization but not unique. For some kind of white rice, and some preparations, rinsing removes rice flour and talc and helps to keep it from getting sticky. Rinsing rice before cooking is uncommon with long grain white rice grown in the Southern USA, and with some European short grain rices (risotto rices or Spanish Bomba for paella.

Sri Owen, in The Rice Book (1993), said that steaming rice has two main steps.  Rice is simmered in water in a pot at the boiling point until the rice has absorbed the water.  Owen says that the pot can be left uncovered. At that point the rice is only parcooked. The traditional method of finishing rice is to cover the vessel and leave it on very low heat to steam the rice internally, taking it off the heat and leaving it covered. 

These steps can be compressed into a bringing the water to a boil,  covering the pot, reducing the heat. simmering, and finally resting off heat.  This method works with a (heavy) pot that disperses the heat evenly; a heavy tight lid to hold in the steam.  The heat must be reduced; the rice should just simmer. Leave it covered and set a timer. Remove from heat and set the timer for the final rest.

This requires a plan – how much water for how much rice, and how long to simmer.  The rice recipe at What’s Cooking America has a table of rice to water ratio and cooking times for several kinds of rice. The instructions at that site for cooking white rice are a bit contradictory.  There is a concise article by Fine Cooking magazine and some videos and notes at the Kitchn site. The ratio of long grain white rice to water is 1 cup of dry rice to 1.5 to 1.75  cups of water.  Some recipes go for more water. The cooking time can be from 12 to 20 minutes. The method works within a range of ratios and times.  The results may be more or less fluffy, absorbent or sticky. 

This technique works in a pressure cooker. The ratio is 1 cup of long grain white rice to 2 cups of water. When the water boils, the lid is locked and the pot is brought to high pressure, and the cooking time on high pressure is 4 minutes. Then rest off heat 10 minutes or more without releasing the pressure (i.e. do not use the release mechanism) – let the pressure drop as the pot cools.

Owen describes 3 other ways of finishing rice, including moving the rice into a collander and steaming the rice suspended in another vessel over boiling water.   This is basically parcooking the rice and put it in a steamer or collander, recommended by Jamie Oliver. Others cook the rice in boiling water, drain it, and rest the rice.

White Basmati Rice, a long grain aromatic rice originating from Northern India, Pakistan and Nepal can be cooked in a pot the same way as other white long grain rice, using about 1 cup of rice to 1.5 cups of water. Rinsing is recommended. The method is a traditional slow simmer. Refer to:

White Basmati Rice can be cooked in a pot on a stove by bringing the water and rice to boil, reducing the heat, covering the rice and simmering on low heat, and resting off the heat for 10 minutes. This is dependent on pot and heat control.  It works with:

  • 2.33 cups of water to 2 cups of rice, simmering 23 minutes, or
  • 2 cups of water to 1.5 cups of rice, simmering 19 minutes 30 seconds. 

Rinsed and soaked, White Basmati  rice can be cooked in a pressure cooker at the ratio of 1 cup rice to 1.25 cups water; the time can be 2-3 minutes on high pressure with a rest off heat as the pressure drops (i.e. not with a fast release).

Steaming brown rice takes more water, and longer cooking times. Recipes don’t  recommend rinsing or soaking brown rice. Long or medium grain brown rice:

  • conventional pot, 1 cup rice to 2.25 cups water, cooking time about 40 minutes;
  • pressure cooker, 1 cup of rice to 1.75 cups of water, cooking time 15-18 minutes (variation in the recipes). Rest off heat 10 minutes or more without releasing the pressure  – let the pressure drop as the pot cools.

Brown rice has more micronutrients and fiber than white rice.  All rice delivers carbohydrates, a source of glucose, an essential nutrient.  Getting brown rice to cook to point of tenderness and to taste good is another story.