Canadian Folk musicians spend a lot of time driving long distances between the communities where they perform. In the late 1970’s Stan Rogers and his band (his brother Garnet Rogers and a small series of other performers) did their time on the road.
On reaching the prairies, Stan Rogers visualized himself as the “tardiest explorer” in the tradition of Franklin, Mackenzie and David Thompson. In his song Northwest Passage, he describes his own journey across the prairie:
“Three centuries thereafter, I take passage overland,
In the footsteps of brave Kelso, where his sea of flowers began”
While the narrative is anchored in the inner vision of the singer dreaming while he drives, the vision itself is heroic, claiming the vision of the first European explorers of the prairies, plains, rivers and mountains of the Canadian Northwest:
“Ah for just one time, I would take the Northwest Passage,
To find the hand of Franklin reaching for the Beaufort Sea,
Tracing one warm line in a land so wide and savage,
And make a Northwest Passage to the sea”
Most of the names in the song are familiar to Canadians, or easy to identify. Mackenzie is Alexander Mackenzie, a fur trader and explorer who navigated the river that bears his name to the Arctic Ocean in 1789 and then, in 1793 crossed the Rockies and descended to the Pacific – the first European Canadian to reach the Pacific overland, a full decade before Lewis and Clark. David Thompson was a great explorer and cartographer. Franklin is Sir John Franklin, the British naval officer who was lost in the Arctic in the 1840’s.
Kelso was Henry Kelsey who joined the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company at age 17 in 1688 and rose to become a governor of the Company. At the time, and for centuries, the Company set itself up in forts on Hudson’s Bay and let the Canadian First Nations bring the furs down to the Bay for trade. Very occasionally, a Bay man would explore inland. In 1690 young Henry Kelsey joined a group of First Nations travelling into what must have been the Canadian heart of darkness. His journals were preserved in the Company archives and rediscovered in the 20th century. He is believed to have travelled southwest from the Bay to the Grand Rapids of the Saskatchewan River, near the modern town of The Pas, and then west and south onto the prairie. He is believed to have been the first European Canadian to reach the prairie from the Bay.
Stan Rogers discussed the process of writing Northwest Passage in a radio interview in 1982 and admitted that he had been unsure of Kelsey’s name and had guessed Kelso while recording the song. He never said if he believed that Kelsey himself had described the prairie as a “sea of flowers” or what brought that image to his mind – since he would himself have only seen the farmlands that the prairies have become.
Kelsey kept a journal, and his only descriptive references to the prairie are as a bleak heath of short round grasses. This indicates that he saw the short sere grasses of the high plains, rather than the tall grass prairies of more fertile regions. It is also not untypical of 17th century aesthetic sensibilities toward nature. It was only in the late 18th and the 19th centuries, through the Romantic movement, that Europeans and European Americans began to see nature as beautiful in itself.
The image of the prairie as a sea or ocean of grass and flowers was employed by the American poet William Cullen Bryant to describe the edge of the plains in southwest Illinois in the early 19th century, and adopted by many later poets and writers, including the 19th century Canadian poet and essayist Charles Mair. The engineer and inventor Sanford Fleming described the prairies that way on arriving at the edge of Red River Valley near the modern town of Ste. Anne, along the Dawson Road from Lake of the Woods in 1870. Fleming and Mair were in the last generation to see the prairies that way, before the slaughter of the last great herds of bison and the breaking of the prairie to agriculture.
In reaching for the beautiful and true meaning of exploration, Rogers transcended geographical and historical accuracy to take us off the asphalt road and into the sea of flowers.
4 responses to “Brave Kelso”
I love that song.
I am listening to it now.
I first heard it while visiting afriend in Toronto. I often wondered who was “brave Kelso”, and what was his “sea of flowers”, and I finally Googled it today, and found your site.
thank you so much for the explanation, and for the beautiful descriptions of the prairies.
(in New Jersey)
“I often wondered who was “brave Kelso”, and what was his “sea of flowers”, and I finally Googled it today, and found your site.
thank you so much for the explanation, and for the beautiful descriptions of the prairies.”
What she said.
Peter Nelson (in Massachusetts)
I have just listed again to “Northwest Passage.” And I have heard it countless times over the years. Yet, it alwsys moves me to tears. Such an amazing feat. Thank you Stan Rogers, and thank you again and again for what you have given us and what you left us.
Memories of I do not know what brought Stan Rogers Northwest Passage ditty to mind and I could not stop thinking about it, hence arriving at this comment through many searches.
CBET did a program on Franklin’s expeditions (I think there were 2, then many more pushed by the wife he left behind to find him) and Roger’s music was a pivotal piece around which that program was assembled and presented. The verse of Kelso/Kelsey and his ‘sea of flowers’ brought to mind the early explorers, and now brings thoughts of some nation many,many leagues below the arctic saying they own it and they control it.
Oh, Canada, do not throw away the heritage of Franklin, Kelso, and the rest…. including Stan Rogers.