Bread was made with rye flour in parts of Eurasia where and when rye grew and wheat did not, including the parts of central and nothern Europe around the Baltic Sea. Rye has less protein and does not produce enough gluten to rise like a leavened wheat bread. Pumpernickel is outside the capabilities of bread machines. There are retail/craft/home formulas for a rustic style with rye flour, e.g. King Arthur Classic Pumpernickel baked in an oven. Rye loaves are a specialty product for commercial bakers. Most commercial and home made rye bread is made with wheat flour with rye flour or rye meal – light rye. Light rye breads are soft breads, with fairly close crumb and a distinct dark crust – chewy but not crunchy. There are rustic rye and rye sourdough styles. There are versions of a deli style; there are consumer reconstructions of local bakery styles. There is a Winnipeg style, a bread flour loaf with a small amount of rye flour and/or rye meal or chopped rye berries. The Winnipeg Free Press had recipes based on the rye bread baked by Winnipeg’s City Bread. There is a bread machine version that I have not tried.
Rye bread often contains caraway seeds; consumers associate the flavour with rye bread. Caraway is related to cumin, fennel, anise, carrots, celery and parsley. Some varieties are known as Persian cumin. It has been used as a cooking herb or spice since the time of the Roman Empire. It is a major spice in Central European cooking and in the nations beside the Baltic. It was adopted in Germany, the Nordic countries, the “Low” countries and England. Caraway seeds were/are used to make flavoured breads with white flour in Central European recipes. Cumin and caraway are the spice in spiced DutchKamijnekaas – Leiden Kaas and spiced Gouda. Other flavouring agents in light rye: fennel and anise seeds, chopped onion, dried orange peel, orange zest and orange oil. There are dark or sour light rye styles with bread flour, rye flour and:
- an agent (molasses, cocoa or ground coffee for home bakers) for dark colour,
- vinegar or sour cream for acidity, and
- corn meal, oatmeal or sunflower seeds for texture.
Bread machine manufacturers have not programmed a light rye program, and discourage baking with rye flour. Panasonic’s manual says rye flour leads to dense bread when used to replace other (wheat) flour in their recipes and warns that using rye flour might overload the motor. This might be a problem if someone tried to make pumpernickel, but overloading the motor is not really why manufacturers don’t like to address rye. Rye bread recipes produce flawed results in the basic bake and whole wheat programs
There is a recipe for Bread with Caraway and Onions in the Panasonic SD-YD250 manual for a medium loaf (1.5 lb.) – 1/8 cup of rye flour and caraway seeds, with 3 cups of bread flour, nearly identical to Panasonic’s Basic White Bread. The Panasonic receipe has almost no rye flour; it emulates light rye by using caraway. Thecomparabe Zorjirushi recipe has enough rye flour to compare to a light rye. The bread machine recipes for light rye bread in the manuals, Bread Lover’s Bread Machine Cookbook (at pp. 133-143, 313), and the Bread Bible use the bake or whole wheat program. Many bread machine recipes treat rye flour the same as a whole wheat flour – they hydrate it and mix it for a long time.
When I baked light rye in the Panasonic and Zojirushi, the machine mixed a dough that looked reasonable in the first 10 minutes of kneading, but was wet by the end of knead time. It rises; when it falls at the knockdowns, it leaves a wet dough residue clinging to the pan which bakes as cracker or flat bread against the edge of pan. This result is produced by a combination of kneading, and over-generous hydration.
Rye flour has less of the proteins that build gluten than wheat flour, and has pentosans. Peter Reinhart notes in The Bread Baker’s Apprentice at p. 185 that it uses glutelin to form gluten (wheat flour has glutenin). It absorbs water differently. The pentosans make the dough gummy. According to Daniel DiMuzio’s Bread Baking, An Arisan’s Perspective:
- (p. 51) pentosans absorb water with very little mixing and are fragile, breaking down and releasing water after as little as 3-4 minutes of intensive mixing;
- (p. 51) bakers using mixing machines use a short period of slow mixing for dough with significant amounts of rye flour, and little intensive mixing;
- (p. 216) dough for deli-style light rye (70% white/30% rye) would be hydrated at 68% and mixed slowly: in a stand mixer, 3 minutes slow to blend ingredients and 3 minutes on second speed.
I calculate water and fluid ingredients to aim for 68-70% hydration.
I use the Zojirushi BB-PAC20, in a custom program with a short “knead” phase. The custom (“home-made”) programs can be set to knead as little as 5 minutes. This is than is needed to mix a light rye that is 30% rye flour by weight, but that is what the machine allows.
Some recipes call for light or medium rye flour which is produced from rye endorsperm (i.e. not whole grain rye) with more screenings. Dark Rye flour uses more whole grain. Some bread machine recipes specifically call for it or treat it as an alternative. There are is a range, for different kinds of rye flour; there are variations of methodology of measuring a cup to weigh:
- Online Conversion’s converter and Aqua-Calc converter – 1 cup of dark rye flour = 4.5 oz. = 128 g.
- Bakery Network conversion chart – 1 cup “rye flour” = 4 oz. = 113 g.
- Aqua-Calc converter light rye flour (or medium rye flour) – 1 cup = 102 g = 3.6 oz.
- The Traditional Oven’s converter – 1 cup = 102 g. = 3.6 oz. light rye?
- King Arthur Flour’s Ingredient Conversion chart – 1 cup = 3.625 oz. light rye?
Anita’s Organic Mill Organic Rye Flour is available in 1 kg. bags in some local stores andonline. This may be a better quantity to buy for flour used in 1 to 1.5 cup quantities. For both of those rye flours, the Canadian “Food Facts” label indicates 1 cup = 120 grams = 4.2 oz. These labels use values based on food data bases based on the measurement standards of their methology. Anita’s is about 120 grams a cup if settled and scooped to pack the cup. Rogers Foods Dark Rye Flour is available locally in 2.5 kg. bags, and priced as a staple. Rogers does not directly publish a volume to mass conversion. Online Conversion’s converter and Aqua-Calc converter dark rye flour said 1 cup of dark rye flour = 4.5 oz. = 128 g. This is the mean or average for dark rye flour surveyed in USDA data base. Rogers Dark Rye may be about 124 grams a cup, settled and scooped.
Beth Hensperger’s recipe “Chuck Williams Country French Bread” is for whole wheat flour. Beth Hensperger adapted a recipe by Chuck Williams (of Williams-Sonoma) for the La Cloche device. It is similar to a hearth bread she calls Pain de Campagne in her Bread Bible (2000), which is made with a starter and sponge made with whole wheat flour. It is in the style of Pain de campagne. Her recipe used whole wheat flour. I tried it with rye with adjustments for quantity of rye flour and water. I use a low knead custom cycle:
|Loaf||Medium||Medium||85% of medium||85% of medium|
|BLBMC||50% Sodium||50% Sodium||33% Sodium|
|Ingredient||Volume||Weight [V]||Weight [V.}||Weight [V.}|
|Instant Yeast High||1 3/4 tsp. [4.9 g.]|
|I.Y. BB-PAC20||1.4 g.||1.1 g.||.85 g.|
|I. Y. Low||7/8 tsp. [2.45 g.]||1.2 g.|
|Bread Flour||2.25 cups||313 g. | 75||266 g.||266 g.|
|*Whole Wheat Flour|
|.75 cups||104 g. | 25||88 g.||88 g.|
|100 g.||85 g.||85 g.|
|* Gluten (with WW)||2 tsp.||2.5 g. [1 tsp.]||2.1 g. [.85] tsp.||2.1 g. [.85] tsp.|
|*Total Flour (WW)||420 g.|
|**Total Flour (Rye)||415 g.|
|Salt||1.5 tsp [8.6 g.]||4.3 g.||3.7 g.||2.4 g.|
|*Water|Hydration WW||1.25 cups||295 g. | 70||251 g.||251 g.|
|**Water|Hydration Rye||282 g. | 68||240 g.||240 g.|
Swedish Rye Bread, a limpa style, from BLBMC:
|Source||50% Sodium||50% Sodium||33% Sodium|
|Medium Loaf||@ 85% of medium||@ 85% of medium|
|B %||Weight [V.]|
|Dried orange peel||1.5 tsp.||[1.5 tsp.]||[1.3 tsp.]||[1.3 tsp.]|
|Fennel Seed||2 tsp.||[2 tsp.]||[1.75 tsp.]||[1.75 tsp.]|
|Caraway Seed||[.25 tsp.]||[.25 tsp.]|
|Instant Yeast High||2 tsp.|
|I.Y. BB-PAC20||1.2 tsp [3.2 g.]||1.6 g.||1.4 g.||.9 g|
|I. Y. Low|
|White Flour||2 cups||278 g.||70||236 g.||236 g.|
|Medium Rye Flour||1.25 cups||120 g. [1 cup]||30||102 g.||102 g.|
|TFW||398||338 g.||338 g.|
|Salt||1 1/4 tsp [7.1 g.]||3.6 g.||3.1 g.||2 g.|
|Oil||1.5 tbsp.||[1.5 tbsp.]||[1.3 T.]||[1.3 T.]|
|Honey||3 tbsp.||60 g. [3 tbsp.]|
|51 g, [2.6 T.]|
|51 g, [2.6 T.]
|Water||1.25 cups||264 g.||223 g.||223 g.|
|Hydration||276 g.||69||233 g.||233 g.|
Scandinavian Light Rye, from BLBMC:
|Medium||Medium||@ 75% of medium||@ 85% of medium||@ 85% of medium|
|BLBMC||50% sodium||50% sodium||50% sodium||33% sodium|
|Instant Yeast High||2.5 tsp|
|I.Y. Low||1.8 g.||1.3 g.|
|White Flour||1.875 cups||261 g.||66||201 g.|
|Dark Rye Flour||1.125 cups||135 g.||34||95 g.|
|Brown Sugar||2 tbsp.||[1.5 T.]||[1.7 T.]||[1.7 T.]|
|Caraway Seed||1.5 tbsp.||[1 + 1/8 tbsp. =|
1 T + 3/8 tsp]
|[1.3 T.]||[1.3 T.]|
|Salt||1.5 tsp.||4.3 g.||3.2 g.|
|Oil||1.5 tbsp.||[1 + 1/8 tbsp. =|
1 T. + 3/8 tsp.]
|[1.3 T.]||[1.3 T.]|
|Water||1.125 cups||266 g.||67||200 g.|
Narsai’s Rye Bread is a bread machine recipes in Beth Hensperger’s Bread Bible. It gets a brown colour from molasses
|Bake Basic||Source||50% Sodium||50% Sodium||33% Sodium|
|Medium Loaf||@ 85% of medium||@ 85% of medium|
|Ingredients||Volume||Weight [V]||B %||Weight [V]||Weight [V]|
|Instant Yeast||2 tsp|
|I.Y. BB-PAC20||1.6 g.||1, 4 g.||1 g|
|I. Y. Low|
|White Flour||2 cups||288 g.||75||245 g.||245 g.|
|Medium Rye Flour||3/4 cups||90 g.||24||77 g.||77 g.|
|Gluten||4 tsp.||0 g.|
|Salt||1 tsp||2.9 g.||2.5 g||1.6 g.|
|Caraway Seed||2 tsp.||[2 tsp.]||[1.75 tsp.]||[1.75 tsp.]|
|Dried Orange Peel||1 tsp.||[1 tsp.]||[.85 tsp.]||[.85 tsp.]|
|Oil||2 tbsp.||[2 tbsp.]||[1.7 T.]||[1.7 T.]|
|Molasses||3 tbsp.||63 g. [3 tbsp.]|
|54 g. [2.5 T.]||54 g. [2.5 T.]|
|Water||1 cup||237 g.||202 g.||202 g.|